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SKILLS DEVELOPMENT PLAN 



for 
HISTORICAL ARCHITECTS 

in the 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA 

JUL 2 8 1986 

L.~.< ARIES 

DEPOSITORY • 



Cover: Detail of Original Shingle Siding, David Ogden House, Fairfield, 
Connecticut 

Photograph by Jack E. Boucher, for the Historic American Buildings 
Survey, from the collection of the Prints and Photographs Division, 
Library of Congress. 



SKILLS DEVELOPMENT PLAN 

for 

HISTORICAL ARCHITECTS 

in the 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



Prepared by: 

Hugh C Miller, AIA 

Chief Historical Architect 
Chief, Park Historic Architecture Division 



Lee H. Nelson, FAIA 

Chief, Preservation Assistance Division 



Emogene A. Bevitt 

Program Analyst 
Preservation Assistance Division 



in consultation with 
The Training Division 



National Park Service 
Washington, D.C. 

May 1986 






PREFACE 



The National Park Service is committed to finding ways of achieving career-long growth 
\ for its employees. We need to view our staff as providing services for 20-30 years or 
more. In the face of that commitment, we, as managers, need to creatively use this Plan 
so that short term assignments such as 2 weeks or 6 weeks or 6 months can positively 
benefit the mission of the Service and lead to career growth for our historical 
architects. I see this Skills Development Plan as an important tool for historical 
architects in the Service to guide their own professional growth. The National Park 
Service is widely respected for the professionalism of its employees; such respect has to 
be re-earned by each new generation. We need to afford the newest generation this 
opportunity. 

Beyond the uses of this Plan for Historical Architects, much of it could be used by 
Architectural Conservators and parts of it are applicable to preservation specialists, 
trades mechanics, maintenance workers and cultural resource management generalists. I 
also see it as a model — I would like to see other disciplines develop such a compendium 
of skills and investigate the creative potential of the Service to assist our employees in 
developing their skills. 

Opportunities abound for learning throughout the Service. I think we need to see them as 
opportunities that will continuously improve the quality of historic preservation in the 
National Park Service by building upon the already solid professionalism of its 
preservation specialists. 




Director 



FOREWORD 

An Historical Architect faces many challenges. It is never a simple task to gain 
understanding of a historic structure's physical evolution over time, to analyze its 
current problems, and then to devise an appropriate solution to best preserve historic 
materials—in spite of technical information or technical advice based on research and 
experience that is hard to locate. This Skills Development Plan seeks to become a 
catalyst to generate more sharing of technical information between historical 
architects. We have endeavored to identify what an historical architect could or should 
know; and we look to the historical architects to share their sources of information and 
the lessons they have learned from the historic structures they have worked on. 

Building on the collective experience of the authors, and the excellent comments 
provided by the NPS historical architects on the May 1985 draft, we have developed a 
reference tool in planning further education in the field of historic architecture — a 
Skills Development Plan. Since many historical architects remain both in the field of 
historic architecture and in the National Park Service for the length of a career ~ 
perhaps 30 years — the National Park Service has adopted this long-range Skills 
Development Plan. This is a "living" document that will be revised with usage in 
response to your comments and suggestions. There are three sections to this Plan. 

The Catalog of the Professional Skills Needed by Historical Architects is a compilation 
of many of the major skills and areas of knowledge needed to work in historic 
architecture. This Catalog is not all inclusive or encyclopedic; rather it suggests the 
range and depth of knowledge needed by an historical architect to understand historic 
materials or historic building systems, or to recommend a preservation treatment. It is 
unlikely that any historic architect will possess all of these skills ~ they are stated to 
create guide posts for learning more in this very broad field. 

Selected Skills Needed by Historical Architects is a "short" list of basic skills selected 
from the Catalog and each of them is expanded to illustrate how the skill could be 
applied to a particular task; and also to suggest the depth and breadth of knowledge that 
can be attained. These "selected" skills convey information on how to begin, what is 
considered basic understanding, what could be a more advanced application of the skill, 
what it would take to have mastery of a subject, and what tasks each skill might enable 
you to do. These descriptions are followed by a list of some of the continuing education 
sources (if and where available) that offer training courses on aspects of the skill. An 
alternative to formal coursework is offered in the inclusion of a selected bibliography 
that includes both basic texts as well as some of the more advanced aspects of the skill. 
Neither the courses nor the bibliography is exhaustive; they are starting points. With 
these selected skills, a self-help program of independent study and training can be 
planned. The very absence of training or literature serves to suggest just how much still 
needs to be done in the way of communicating the lessons you have learned and are 
learning daily while working on cultural resources. 

The last section, Participation in the Skills Development Plan provides information on 
the enrollment requirements which include developing a personal study plan, developing 
personal "projects" and preparing an annual assessment of participation. 

The first two sections are seen as reference tools for career-long skills development. 
The third section provides a framework for participation. 



1 l 



The main instrument in this equation is you. Using this system, you should be able to: 

—plan a self-help program 

--participate in continuing education courses 

—consult with senior level historical architects in the Service 

—seek special project assignments 

—cooperate and consult with architects in the private sector 

—attend professional meetings and workshops offered by organizations like the APT 
and AIA 

—share what you learn in Preservation Tech Notes, Feedback columns, Training Aids 
or slide lectures 

—belong to local chapters of professional preservation organizations or specialized 
subject organizations like the Friends of Terra Cotta 

—review your progress at least once a year. 



A special Appendix A: NPS Intem-Architects Guide to Architectural Licensing assists in 
the shorter-term career goal of architectural registration. Many architects see 
architectural licensing as an important, but difficult, career goal. Some architects in the 
Federal Government have had added difficulty in having their Federal work experience 
qualify towards meeting the licensing requirements. The National Council of 
Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB) has outlined the variety and length of 
experience it will accept as qualifying and, since many states accept NCARB standards, 
this section adapts NCARB's outline of experience and description of qualifying tasks to 
similar experience and tasks performed by historical architects in the NPS. 

We invite comments and suggestions about this Plan. Please sent them to the Skills 
Development Plan Coordinator, c/o Preservation Assistance Division, National Park 
Service, P.O. Box 37127, Washington, D.C. 20013-7127. 




Ls.ltolU* 

Hugh C. Miller, AIA 
Lee H. Nelson, FAIA 
Emogene A. Bevitt 



1 i i 



Catalog of the Professional Skills Needed by Historical Architects 



Introduction 1 

Preservation Philosophy, Policy, Standards, History, Design 1 

Relevant Organizations and Information Systems i 2 

Historic Building Materials 3 

Historic Building Systems, Technology, Structures 4 

Historic Building Components 5 

Historic Moldings and Decorative Elements 6 

Historic Finishes 6 

Diagnosis and Treatments 6 

Putting It All Together 10 

Historic Structure Assessments 10 

Historic Structure Reports 11 

Historic Structure Preservation Guides 12 

Skills Needed in Planning arid Undertaking Historic Preservation Projects 

Resource Data Collection and Documentation Skills 12 

Historic Fabric Investigation and Diagnostic Skills 13 

Plan and Design Solutions and Treatments 14 

Project Execution and Completion 14 



Introduction 

It goes without saying that an historical architect is first an architect and, as such, needs to be well 
grounded in all aspects of the architectural practice, including architectural design, planning, 
construction specifications and contract administration. This background, while essential, is still not 
sufficient to understand historic structures with their complex problems (weathering, patterns of use 
over time, neglect, etc.). Thus, in the Catalog that follows, the range and complexity of knowledge 
and skills needed by those who treat historic structures are described. At present, it is unlikely that 
any individual historical architect could lay claim to all of these skills. This Catalog is intended to be 
a reference tool to stimulate career-long development. 



Knowledge of Preservation Philosophy, Policy, 
Standards, Architectural History, Design 

Knowledge about the fundamental principles 
of historic preservation and architectural 
conservation. 

Knowledge of American Architectural History 
and construction practices. 

In-depth knowledge about the types of historic 
structures throughout American history 
including fortifications, industrial buildings, 
lighthouses, cemeteries, public buildings, 
domestic architecture, churches and missions, 
outdoor sculpture, vernacular architecture, 
historic engineering structures and industrial 
equipment, materials, processes and systems, 
to be able to deal with National Park Service 
structures as well as National Historic 
Landmarks and National Register-eligible 
structures. 

Knowledge about the history of domestic 
buildings, urban and rural, with the various 
appurtenances to support family life, such as 
the arrangement as separate or connected 
outbuildings, back buildings, wells, privies, 
smokehouses, barns, stables, kitchens, 
springhouses, root cellars, etc. 

Knowledge of historic designed landscapes, 
gardens, plantings including vistas, knowledge 
of vegetation and topography, knowledge of 
engineering in planning drainage and in 
planning pedestrial and vehicular circulation; 
knowledge of other landscape elements such as 
fencing, gates, walks, greenhouses, gazebos, 
bird houses, storm cellars, cemeteries; and 



knowledge of historic vernacular landscapes to 
be able to identify features, dates of changes, 
particular uses and time period; understanding 
how to record, preserve and maintain an 
historic landscape or historic vernacular 
landscape. Knowledge of historic landscape 
furnishings such as benches, lighting, 
sculpture, signage, and trash cans. 

Knowledge about Legislative and Executive 
Order mandates, such as: 

—National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, 

as amended 

—Executive Order 11593 

—Code of Federal Regulations, 36 CRF, 

Parts 60, 61, 63, 65, 66, 67, &00 

—Antiquities Act of 1906 

—Historic Sites Act of 1935 

—Venice Cnarter 

Knowledge of the Secretary of the Interior's 
Standards for Historic Preservation Projects 
and the Secretary of the Interior's Standards 
for Rehabilitation and Guidelines for 
Evaluating Historic Buildings. The ability to 
interpret and apply the Secretary's Standards 
and Guidelines to projects. 

Knowledge about NPS Policy and Guidelines 

on: 
—National Park Service Management Policies 
and the Cultural Resources Management 
Guideline (NPS-28), including "Energy 
Conservation in Historic Structures and 
Structures Housing Collections"; "Design 
Compatibility in Historic Zones or Districts"; 
"Standards for Working Drawings and 
Specifications for Structure Treatment"; 
"Contracting for Structure Treatment"; 



Catalog of Skills— Preservation Philosophy... — page 1 



"Contracting for Professional Services"; 

"Supervision of Historic Structure 

Treatment". 

—Drafting Guideline for Design and 

Construction Drawing (NPS-10) 

—Drawing and Map Numbers (NPS-29) 

—Historic Property Leasing (NPS -38) 

—National Register Programs Guideline 

(NPS-49) 

—Loss Control Management Program 

(NPS-50) 

—Implementation of Revised OMB Circular 

A-76 (Special Directive 80-5) 

—Policy on Historic Property Leases and 

Exchanges (Special Directive 82-12) 

—NPS Policy on Access for Disabled Persons 

(Special Directive 83-3); "Designing for 

Accessibility for Disabled Persons in Historic 

Structures and Sites" in the Architectural 

Barriers Act of 1968 as amended; 41 CFR 

101-19, Uniform Federal Accessibility 

Standards; and the technical manual 

"Accommodation of Disabled Visitors at 

Historic Sites in the National Park System" 

—NPS Safety and Occupational Health 

Management Policy (Special Directive 83-7); 

"Protection (Safety and Security) in Historic 

or Prehistoric Sites and Structures" and 

"Protective Systems for Structures" in the 

Department of the Interior Manual 

—Implementation of Fire Safety Evaluation 

System to Provide Flexibility in Achieving 

Life Safety Equivalence (Staff Directive 84- 

12) V. 

—Knowledge of the Standards for Managing 
Historic and Prehistoric Structures (Including 
Ruins), the Standards for Historic Rural 
Landscape Districts, and the Standards for 
Historical Ships and Boats 
—NPS planning, programming and budget 
procedures 

—preparation of budget documents 
— task directives for work involving 
preservation 

—procurement procedures for Architectural- 
Engineering (A-E) services 
—preparation of nominations to the List of 
Classified Structures 

—preparation of Historic Structure Reports 
—preparation of Historic Structure 
Preservation Guides 



—preparation of Resources Management 

Plans 

—Cultural Resources Management 

Bibliography 

—Historic Resource Study 

Knowledge about the process, the preparation 
of forms, and the criteria for nominating 
structures and districts to the National 
Register of Historic Places. 

Knowledge about related national issues 
affecting historic properties: energy 
conservation, handicapped access, life safety, 
fire and health codes and compliance; acid 
rain. 



Knowledge of relevant organizations and 
information systems 

Knowledge about the categories of park units 
within the park system and the historic 
preservation programs of the National Park 
Service including review of nominations to the 
National Register; development of National 
Historic Landmark nomination studies; review 
of rehabilitation projects for tax incentives; 
preparation of technical preservation 
publications; preparation of Historic Structure 
Reports, Historic Structure Preservation 
Guides and other technical documents; 
preparation of documentation to HABS/HAER 
standards for transmittal to the Library of 
Congress and other uses; knowledge about 
funding and fiscal planning needed to 
undertake preservation treatments in the 
Service. 

Knowledge about National Historic Landmarks 
and the Landmark Programs (including 
cooperative agreements) and related activities 
growing out of the Historic Sites Act of 1935. 

Knowledge about the role of the Advisory 
Council on Historic Preservation and the 
impact the Council has on park service 
properties especially in NPS compliance with 
the Section 106 process. 



Catalog of Skills— Preservation Philosophy../Organizations — page 2 



Knowledge about the preservation activities of 
Federal agencies such as the General Services 
Administration that own historic properties. 

Knowledge about the role of State Historic 
Preservation Offices and local governments in 
the preservation of historic structures. 

Knowledge about the programs of the National 
Trust for Historic Preservation. 

Knowledge about the technical information 

generated by professional organizations such 

as: 

-American Institute of Architects(AIA) 

-American Institute for the Conservation of 

Historic and Artistic Works (AIC) 

-American Society of Landscape Architects 

(ASLA) 

-Association for Preservation Technology 

(APT) 

-Art Deco Society 

-Cooperative Preservation of Architectural 

Records (COPAR) 

-Friends of Cast Iron 

-Friends of Terra Cotta (FOTC) 

-International Centre for the Study of the 

Restoration and Preservation of Cultural 

Property (ICCROM) 

-International Council on Monuments and Sites 

(ICOMOS) 

-International Institute for the Conservation 

of Artistic and Historic Works (IIC) 

-National Building Museum 

-Society of Architectural Historians (SAH) 

-Society for the History of Technology (SHOT) 

-Society for Industrial Archeology (SIA) 

-Victorian Society of America (VSA) 

Knowledge about the landmarks or heritage 
programs of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers, American Concrete Institute, and 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 

Knowledge about the use of American Society 
for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standards for 
preservation work. 

Knowledge about the materials and processes 
found in Sweet's Catalog File of Products for 
General Building and Renovation. 



Knowledge about the building materials and 
building material functions described by the 
Construction Specifications Institute (CSI). 

Knowledge about CSI formatting of 
maintenance information (being developed). 

Knowledge about the building functions format 
in the Uniform Construction Index (UCI). 

Knowledge about historic preservation degree 
programs and certificate programs offered by 
universities and other sources. 

Knowledge about the services available from 
the Forest Products Laboratory for 
identification of wood species. 



Knowledge of Historic Building Materials 

Knowledge about wood as a historic building 
material; knowledge about wood's properties, 
performance, and limitations; knowledge about 
species of wood; knowledge about historic 
woodworking processes; knowledge about 
tools, "tool marks," and craftsmanship; 
knowledge about preservation treatments, 
repair and maintenance techniques that have 
become part of the historic fabric, for 
example, the kind of nails used, the way wood 
was glued or pieced in or dovetailed to 
distinguish later alterations and repairs may 
be used as dating "tools." 

Knowledge about historic unit masonry 
materials such as brick, stone, terracotta; 
knowledge about the history of unit masonry 
materials — their ingredients, composition and 
manufacture; knowledge about the variations 
in regional materials, sizes of units, color; 
knowledge about the impact of the craft 
processes and changes in technology over time 
that affected the size and quality of the 
products, for example, handmade bricks versus 
machine made bricks; knowledge about the 
great variety of stones used for American 
building construction; the types, their 
properties and characteristics including 
geological information; knowledge about the 



Catalog of Skills—Organizations. ./Historic Building Materials — page 3 



history of the stone working industry; 
knowledge about the use of field stone versus 
cut stone; knowledge about the tools, 
craftsmanship and "tool marks" on walling; 
knowledge about bedding planes for stone and 
their importance in the integrity of the 
system. 

Knowledge about concrete as a historic 
building material; its origins and early uses (as 
in Roman concrete); knowledge about the 
development of hydraulic limes and cements, 
including trass, pozzolona, and their early uses 
in America for unreinforced concrete, such as 
the "gravel wall" by Orson Fowler; knowledge 
about the development of reinforced concrete 
buildings, bridges, dams; knowledge about 
about architectural concrete with the various 
finishes such as exposed aggregates. 

Knowledge about metals used in historic 
structures. Knowledge about the structural 
properties and uses of steel, cast iron, and 
wrought iron; knowledge about their uses as 
structural members as in tie rods, beams, 
trusses, skeletal construction, the 
development of their technology, e.g. hand 
forging, casting, rolling, and connecting 
devices; knowledge about the variety of 
metals used for roofing, flashing and exterior 
and interior decorative elements such as tin 
roofing, copper, lead, sheet iron; knowledge 
about the manufacture of these materials, 
their use as a function of size which was 
determined by limits in the manufacturing 
process; knowledge about the history of the 
fabrication of various metals including 
soldering, lap-seams, standing-seams. 

Knowledge about the stabilization of 
prehistoric and historic ruins of adobe, stone, 
concrete, and brick, to understand the 
philosophy of ruins stabilization, and to 
understand the techniques for their 
reinforcement and maintenance. 



Knowledge of Historic Building Systems, 
Technology, Structures 

Knowledge about historic foundations ranging 
from simple piers or posts, to masonry 
foundations, to simple footings, to spread 
footings, or reverse arches. 

Knowledge about historic structural systems 
such as masonry wall bearing construction and 
various combinations of masonry arches (semi- 
circular, elliptical, flat arches), vaulted 
construction (barrel vaults, elliptical vaults, 
tile vaults, domes, pendentives, combinations 
of iron and masonry), cavity wall construction. 
Knowledge about various types of historic 
wooden framing systems, including regional 
variations of pegged-braced frames, wooden 
wall trusses, wooden floor framing systems, 
wooden roof trusses, roof framing, historic 
balloon framing, platform framing. 
Knowledge about prefabrication of wall, floor 
and roof framing in early buildings and all the 
assorted connecting devices used for historic 
wooden structural systems including wooden 
pegs, nails, bolts, and tie rods. 

Knowledge about historic exterior wall 
surfaces and materials including various forms 
of wooden siding, flushboards, clapboards, 
shingles, and shakes. Knowledge of the 
various craft practices used to fabricate 
and/or install these materials in various times 
and locales ranging from hand-splitting to 
machine made, from hand attached in various 
ways to fairly sophisticated attaching 
techniques. Knowledge about the craftsman- 
ship and materials used to make historic walls 
to be able to repair, piece out, or replace 
damaged or deteriorated siding materials; to 
be able to estimate the damage to such 
covered materials as a result of energy 
retrofitting of frame walls or the introduction 
of high humidity in the building system. 

Knowledge about historic roof covering 
materials such as ceramic tile, slate, thatch, 
composition, boarding, and wooden shingling in 
a wide range of materials and craftsmanship 
(split, side-lapped, sawn, shaped, face-nailed, 
etc.). Knowledge about shingling practices at 



Catalog of Skills—Historic Building Materials /Historic Building Systems ~ page k 



ridges, hips, valleys, chimneys and dormers. 
Knowledge about the great variety of metal 
roofing materials such as tin, copper, lead, 
iron and zinc. Knowledge about historic flat 
roofing systems with built in rain water 
disposal. Knowledge about historic flashing 
and contemporary flashing details to be able 
to solve problems around dormers, vents, 
skylights, chimneys, turrets, and other 
complex roof features. 

Knowledge about historic window systems: 
single hung, double hung, and casement 
systems with sash, frames, weights and/or 
associated hardware. Knowledge about the 
evolution of muntin profiles. Knowledge about 
historic glass types, such as crown glass, broad 
glass; their physical characteristics, thickness, 
color and visual qualities due to their 
manufacturing processes; later glass products, 
such as plate glass, beveled glass, etched 
glass, decorative glass, stained glass, modern 
glass, structural glass, glass block. Knowledge 
about metal sash systems and their historical 
development. 

Knowledge about historic flooring materials 
and floor coverings from the whole spectrum 
of early wooden flooring: pegged, face-nailed, 
blind-nailed, butt joints, tongue and groove, 
random widths, matched widths. Knowledge 
about the hierarchy of floor treatments 
relative to the social importance of the 
space. Knowledge about historic floor 
finishes, early flooring maintenance practices, 
knowledge about later hardwood flooring, 
parquet and decorative flooring. Knowledge 
about historic tile, marble, and other stone 
and/or brick flooring. Knowledge about 
historic floor coverings such as carpets, 
painted floor cloths, linoleum. 

Knowledge of historic log construction 
practices as they varied from time, place, and 
ethnic influence. Knowledge of construction 
techniques of these materials including dry 
laid foundations, notching, chinking, or 
tapered ends on log walls, and other methods 
incorporated traditionally to prevent 
deterioration. Knowledge of where vernacular 
materials are most likely to deteriorate to 



determine the most effective method for 
affecting repairs. 

Knowledge about historic adobe construction; 
knowledge about adobe walling and mud 
plastering; knowledge about wooden vigas in 
ceilings; knowledge about rain water disposal; 
knowledge about fireplaces and chimneys; 
knowledge about adobe walls and enclosures. 

Knowledge about historic ships and maritime 
facilities such as ship building yards, docks, 
rope making structures, etc. 



Knowledge of Historic Building Components 

Knowledge about historic building components 
and mechanical systems to identify clues as to 
their existence and/or presence where 
appropriate; and knowledge about the 
introduction of new mechanical equipment and 
systems into historic buildings to minimize 
damage to surviving historic mechanical 
equipment where appropriate as well as 
minimizing damage to historic fabric and 
historic character including the imaginative 
use of heat registers, unused fireplaces and 
flues, etc. 

Knowledge about historic heating equipment, 
such as open stoves, closed stoves and the 
development of central heating from the early 
masonry furnaces, combinations of masonry 
and iron, to modern furnaces with fireboxes 
and ductwork; development of furnaces for hot 
air or hot water with all their appurtenances 
including ductwork or radiators and piping. 

Knowledge about the development of historic 
ventilation systems ranging from louvered 
openings, internal planning designed to 
promote cross circulation, ceiling louvers with 
wooden ductwork for public buildings to forced 
air systems. 

Knowledge about historic kitchen cooking 
equipment, stoves, ovens. 

Knowledge about historic lighting equipment 
fixtures ranging from portable lighting 



Catalog of Skills—Historic Building 5ystems../Historic Building Components ~ page 5 



devices, and permanent fixtures, gaslighting 
fixtures, electrical lighting fixtures (and 
wiring installations). 

Knowledge about historic lightning suppression 
equipment including lightning rods and 
conductors for buildings and trees. 

Knowledge about historic plumbing equipment 
and installations including conductor pipes for 
cisterns and indoor plumbing for kitchens and 
bathrooms. 

Knowledge about historic fire suppression 
systems from leather buckets to glass bottles. 

Knowledge about historic building components, 
that is, purchasable manufactured off-site 
items including such things as door hardware, 
window hardware, bell systems, shutter 
hardware. 

Knowledge about historic ornamental iron 
work (wrought iron and cast iron), such as 
porch railings, fences, gateways, cellar 
window grills, roof cresting, etc. 



Knowledge of Historic Moldings and 
Decorative Elements 

Knowledge about the history of architectural 
moldings and related details; knowledge about 
how to identify and how to name them; 
knowledge about how they were executed in 
different materials; knowledge about machine 
and hand tools used to execute the moldings 
(for example, the use of planes and how 
moldings were pieced together to minimize 
wasting wood); knowledge about the purpose of 
moldings in covering joints and allowing for 
expansion and contraction. 

Knowledge about historic plaster walls, 
moldings, and decorative features; knowledge 
about plastering craft practices (with or 
without plaster "grounds") and how these 
practices can be used as dating tools. 



Knowledge of Historic Finishes 

Knowledge about historic house painting, 
exterior and interior, utilizing the various 
finishes, paints and painting practices, 
including the use of white washes, milk paints, 
oil paints, calcimine, varnishes, and shellacs. 

Knowledge about historic paint materials, 
pigments, mediums, and driers. 

Knowledge about historic priming practices 
(relative to interiors) and paint practices to be 
able to know where to look for evidence of 
various painting practices and to be able to 
interpret paint layers. 

Knowledge about historic painting of masonry 
walls, pencilling of mortar joints, historic 
painting of roofing. 

Knowledge about historic marbling practices 
(exterior and interior), and historic graining 
practices and the tools used to imitate various 
woods for interior doors, baseboards, 
wainscotting, and other woodwork. Knowledge 
about other historic painting practices such as 
dark baseboards, stencilled borders, 
polychromy, and the whole range of decorative 
wall and ceiling painting in the Victorian era. 

Knowledge about historic paint materials and 
practices to be able to conduct paint color 
research and to be able to use paints and 
painting practices as dating "tools." 



Diagnosis and Treatments; Principles and 
Practice 

Knowledge about evaluating the whole range 
of wood preservation problems including poor 
original materials, poor original workmansip, 
damage due to neglect, overstress, high 
humidity and moisture problems, insect 
attack, deterioration of joints and connecting 
devices, embrittlement. Knowledge about 
techniques for treating and stabilizing dry rot 
in historic wood including understanding the 
mechanisms of fungal decay to be able to 



Catalog of Skills— Historic Building Components/Moldings/Finishes — page 6 



identify in the early stages the several types 
of fungal decay and how to treat. Knowledge 
about the various fungicides, their 
appropriateness and their hazards. Knowledge 
about dealing with insect infestations and 
damage. 

Knowledge about the structural reinforcement 
of historic wood. Knowledge about various 
physical and chemical repairs, and treatments 
such as piecing out with new materials in kind, 
or splicing with dissimilar materials. 
Knowledge about the various systems for wood 
epoxy reinforcement (WER), including 
knowledge about how to formulate appropriate 
epoxy consolidants with an understanding of 
the various kinds of resins, curing agents and 
extenders and methods of application of 
stabilizers alone or in combination with wood 
patching to assure workability for decorative 
members and fragile parts such as window 
muntins that such consolidation, repair and 
patching methodologies should respect the 
original materials in terms of strength, 
expansion and contraction and visual 
characteristics. 

Knowledge about general woodworking and 
millwork practices such as the appropriate use 
of other woods and substitute materials where 
original species or other qualities of the wood 
are no longer available. Knowledge about the 
appropriateness of hand tools vs. machine 
tools including sanding, back priming, the 
effects of various chemical treatments 
including fire retardant chemicals. Knowledge 
about how to reproduce historic wooden 
moldings. 

Knowledge about various preservation 
treatments for historic brick and stone 
masonry to deal with such problems as 
spalling, graffiti, crumbling, moisture 
movement such as rising damp, efflorescence, 
staining, cracking and detachment. Such 
treatments range from partial replacement, 
plastic repair, mechanical attachment devices, 
chemical consolidation, coatings, and damp 
proofing methodologies. Ability to identify 
inherent weaknesses in materials and systems; 
identifying natural agents of deterioration; 



identifying built-in design flaws, human 
changes, alterations, or interventions that are 
contributing to materials and systems 
deterioration. 

Knowledge about techniques for cleaning 
historic structures to be able to understand 
the need and methods for testing and the 
effect of weather and temperature in 
determining the best cleaning method; to be 
able to match the technique to the material 
and condition; to be able to understand the 
chemical interaction between building 
materials and the cleaning agents and the 
effect those agents can have on those portions 
of the historic structure not intended for 
cleaning, for example, cleaning the cast iron 
facade by sandblasting while protecting the 
wooden window sash. 

Knowledge about coatings, sealants, and 
elastomeric compounds; knowledge about their 
appropriateness, as well as the dangers 
associated with their use as they relate to 
historic structure systems. 

Knowledge about specialized techniques for 
cleaning historic interiors and surfaces such as 
plaster, bare wood, painted wood, marble, 
decorative arts, etc. 

Knowledge about repointing of historic brick 
structures to understand the design and impact 
of the craft practices and the importance of 
the chemical and color composition of the 
mortar; to be able to identify and prescribe 
needed repointing; to be able to prescribe the 
careful removal of mortar if needed; to 
understand the purpose of mortar; and to 
understand the overall functioning of mortar 
in allowing for the dynamics of the structure 
with the attendant dangers from sealants and 
overstrength mortar formulas. 

Knowledge about the present problems 
associated with historic concrete structures 
such as fortifications. Knowledge about 
problems associated with rusting and corrosion 
of steel reinforcement and others metals 
embedded in historic concrete such as steel 
windows. Knowledge about the various 



Catalog of Skills— Diagnosis and Treatments — page 7 



problems associated with historic concrete, 
including discoloration, pitting, spalling, 
moisture movement, expansion, soft surface, 
erosion, scaling, disintegration, and 
displacement. Knowledge about the range of 
repair materials that will be compatible with 
the color, appearance and performance of the 
concrete that is being repaired to be able to 
respond in the same way to changes in 
temperature and load. Knowledge about the 
limits and uses of different tests for concrete 
performance, including specific gravity, void 
ratio, percent absorption, sonic tests, 
compression tests, aggregate reactivity test 
and mineral analysis. Ability to identify 
inherent weaknesses in materials and systems; 
identifying natural agents of deterioration; 
identifying built-in design flaws, human 
changes, alterations, or interventions that are 
contributing to materials and systems 
deterioration. Knowledge about investigative 
techniques for evaluation of damage in 
historic concrete and selection of repair 
methods. 

Knowledge about the causes of deterioration 
of various historic metals including corrosion, 
weathering, galvanic action, physical and 
mechanical breakdowns such as creep and 
fatigue. Knowledge about general 
preservation methods relevant to specific 
metals including those metals used in more 
recent buildings such as Monel, and various 
alloys of aluminum. Ability to identify 
inherent weaknesses in materials and systems; 
identifying natural agents of deterioration; 
identifying built-in design flaws, human 
changes, alterations, or interventions that are 
contributing to materials and systems 
deterioration. 

Knowledge about various subsoil conditions 
affecting historic structures including such 
factors as water tables, ground water 
movement, the effects of nearby excavation 
or archeology, underground utility lines, 
irrigation systems, tree plantings, and deep 
excavations for adjacent structures above and 
below surface. 

Understanding the principles and practices of 



soil stabilization and reinforcement of historic 
masonry and wooden systems to strengthen 
and supplement the original system where 
possible and to provide a new system that will 
minimize the loss of historic fabric and meet 
structural requirements. For example, 
knowledge about soil stabilization, grouting, 
and other techniques to deal with differential 
settlement and other foundation damage. 
Knowledge about underpinning practices and 
needling to develop new spread footings for 
better distribution of imposed live and dead 
loads. Knowledge of how to monitor and 
evaluate the soil subsidence. 

Understanding techniques for monitoring 
structural movement, cracks, deflection, the 
effects of vibration in historic structures; 
knowledge about the technology for 
monitoring crack movement using such devices 
as strain gauges, electronic gauges, 
engineering "tell tales". Understanding testing 
of historic materials, where appropriate, to 
determine their structural capacities in 
tension, compression, shear, etc. 
Understanding how to evaluate historic 
structural systems that are indeterminate. 
Understanding the structural qualities that are 
contributed by such membranes of historic 
buildings as flooring, lathing, and sheathing. 
Ability to diagnose structural movement which 
could be a function of soil subsidence, 
excavations, changes of water table; skill in 
diagnosing weaknesses in the structural system 
or connecting joints that are contributing to 
distortion, subsidence, deflection, etc. 

Knowledge of present construction practices 
and materials and their interaction with 
historic methods and materials to produce the 
correct restoration appearances with effective 
construction. 

Knowledge about evaluating historic window 
system problems, their routine maintenance, 
repair, replacement, weatherstripping, and 
thermal retrofitting. 

Understanding the need to design a 
Heating/Ventilation/Air Conditioning (HVAC) 
system to meet the use and occupancy needs 



Catalog of Skills— Diagnosis and Treatments -- page 8 



of the historic structure without causing 
extensive loss of historic fabric or creating an 
HVAC system that is visually inappropriate to 
the structure's historic character or one that 
will cause excessive vibration or noise as a 
result of introducing new equipment. 
Understanding how to take into account the 
existence of historic mechanical equipment 
and their possible reuse. Understanding how 
to use the configuration of the building in the 
design and distribution of mechanical 
equipment, be it heating, cooling, electrical, 
plumbing, fire detection, whatever. One of 
the most difficult aspects of restoration work 
is understanding how to design an HVAC 
system that will meet the needs of both the 
historic structure and any objects that may be 
exhibited. Understanding the interrelationship 
between certain kinds of energy retrofitting 
such as insulating cavity walls with the 
installation of environmental control 
equipment that might have the effect of 
introducing condensation into the wall or 
increasing the moisture level of wooden 
members embedded in the masonry. 

Understanding fire protection planning 
principles; understanding how to analyze the 
historic structure for fire risks. Knowledge of 
current building codes and knowledge of the 
National Fire Protection Association 
guidelines and technical information. 
Knowledge of the various kinds of equipment, 
products and services related to fire detection 
and fire suppression. Understanding the 
various factors for selecting the use of such 
equipment and systems when historic 
structures are also being used for the exhibit 
of museum objects. 

Understanding the planning considerations for 
security of grounds and structures at historic 
properties; planning for the various aspects of 
physical security devices, such as, bars on 
windows, locking systems; knowledge about 
and the electronic intrusive and detector 
systems that may be tied into surveillance of 
grounds, windows and interior spaces. 
Planning the coordination of security planning 
and equipment and fire detection systems with 
local law officials. 



Knowledge about the importance of energy 
conservation as a national issue; knowledge 
about energy conservation design and retrofit; 
knowledge about the concept of embodied 
energy and the planning approaches to energy 
conservation; knowledge about how to analyze 
an historic structure and its use in terms of 
energy conservation; knowledge about the 
payback aspects vs. the outlay costs; 
knowledge about window retrofitting, solar 
devices, passive energy devices, such as 
awnings, and the appropriateness or 
inappropriateness of tinted and mirror glass. 
Knowledge about the design, installation and 
operation of museum and other special 
environmental systems in historic structures. 

Knowledge about seismic requirements and 
retrofit techniques for historic structures to 
be able to assess existing seismic features, to 
identify and incorporate any needed change to 
the historic structure so as to minimize the 
impact on historic character and integrity. 

Knowledge of chemistry in the context of 
practical materials, e.g. the nature of 
chemical bonding and reactions, chemical 
nomenclature of construction materials, and 
reactions in inorganic systems like masonry 
deterioration and the corrosion of metals. 

Knowledge about various methods for 
consolidation and reattachment of historic and 
prehistoric plasters and paint where such 
plasters and/or paint have been damaged by 
water or where the plaster keys have been 
broken off. 

Knowledge about the effects of moisture and 
the effects of pollutants and moisture borne 
pollutants on historic structures; knowledge 
about moisture protection, and the processes 
of materials degradation in the presence of 
moisture. Ability to diagnose the wide range 
of moisture problems that are contributing to 
dry rot, deterioration, settlement, and finish 
failures of stuccoes and paints. Knowledge 
about monitoring moisture both externally and 
internally within building materials and within 
wall systems, analyzing the effects of 
dissolved salts, sulfates, and nitrates as a 
result of moisture migration. 



Catalog of Skills— Diagnosis and Treatments — page 9 



Understanding building ecology — the building 
as a historic ecosystem. 

Knowledge about the impact of maintenance 
practices on the historic structure; knowledge 
of cyclical maintenance needs; knowledge of 
how to train maintenance personnel in 
appropriate maintenance techniques for 
historic structures; knowledge of how to 
prepare written maintenance guidelines. 
Knowledge of maintenance practices in the 
National Park Service. Ability to diagnose the 
maintenance practices that are contributing to 
materials or systems deterioration. 

Knowledge about potential health dangers that 
may be found in historic structures — e.g. lead 
paints, pigeon droppings, asbestos, in order to 
safely conduct investigations and to advise 
construction crews on precautions to be taken. 

Knowledge about insect, pest, and fungal 
infestations in historic structures which would 
include recognition and identification; 
evidence of borings, tunnels, holes, frass and 
methods of control and treatment; the 
problems and possible consequences of 
treatment on the historic structure. (For 
example, the difference in treating airborne 
vs. subterranean termites, and the impact of 
those treatments on historic materials, 
finishes, etc.) Knowledge about Integrated 
Pest Management. 

Knowledge about the hazards of historic and 
non-historic plant materials such as vines, 
mosses, algae and lichens on historic 
structures and the chemical interaction of 
these plant materials with various building 
materials and the physical forces that they 
generate. For example, ivy when growing on 
brick walls generates an acid that dissolves 
mortar. Understanding the possible hazards 
associated with the use of herbicides, ground 
poisons, and other chemicals used to control or 
destroy plants. 



Putting It All Together: The Historic 
Structure Assessment, the Historic Structure 
Report, and the Historic Structure 
Preservation Guide 

National Park Service Historical Architects 
prepare the above documents to record the 
historic significance, character and fabric of 
the structure with its existing condition; to 
document the reasons for the treatments they 
recommended; to record the new information 
they uncovered in the course of the work; to 
record the way the structure looked after 
treatment with a description of the changes 
that occurred in bringing the planned 
treatment to completion; to provide a 
blueprint for the future caretakers (both 
historical architects and maintenance 
personnel) on how to best maintain the historic 
structure; and to provide a written legacy to 
future architects and generations of 
Americans on the historic fabric they were 
privy to. The preparation of these documents 
is unique to the National Park Service and, 
coupled with the successful treatment of 
historic structures to prolong their existence, 
is the other primary reason for learning all of 
the skills and understanding described 
previously. 

Historic Structure Assessment 

Knowledge about the role of the Historic 
Structure Assessment in planning and the 
decision making process and a complete 
understanding of the elements that comprise 
that Assessment. The ability to make 
decisions about the need for the information 
and the appropriate level of investigation is 
critical in this information collection 
process. Typical elements of an Historic 
Structure Assessment are: 
—statement of structure's significance using 
National Register criteria 
—brief narrative of the known 
anthropological/archeological, historical, 
architectural/engineering, and landscape 
data about the structure and its setting 
—list of completed reports and proposed 
research 

—names of owners, architects, designers, 
contractors, etc. and dates, related to the 



Catalog of Skills— Diagnosis and Treatments. ./Putting it Together — page 10 



structure's construction 
—list of the changes and additions since 
original construction with appropriate 
references, photographs and drawings 
—list of comparable structures in vicinity or 
prototypes elsewhere 
—reference source documents and plans 
—inventory of historic fabric, and if 
accessible, the structure and infrastructure 
systems 

— assessment of integrity of fabric and 
identify elements that are original or of a 
significant later addition 
—identification of earlier restoration or 
quality repair work 
—description of physical condition of 
structure analyzing the probable causes of 
deterioration; including (where applicable) 
the envelope, structural system, interior 
spaces, finishes and fixtures, HVAC, 
plumbing, electric, fire and security systems, 
the site and its landscape elements 
—statement of treatment objectives and 
manner of meeting those objectives 
—recommendations for treatment — 
preservation, rehabilitation, restoration, 
reconstruction, interim stabilization 
—evaluation of recommended treatment 
relative to policy, management, and 
operations considerations: 

-for the proposed or interim use 

-if the structure is furnished or used as a 

museum 

-security and fire protection 

-environmental systems code compliance 

and handicapped accessibility 
—describe the proposed use and the 
foreseeable impact it will have on the 
historic character, integrity, and significance 
of the structure and its fabric 
—evaluate the impact of treatment and use 
on interpretive potential and on 
archeological or collections management 
—suggest treatments for mitigation, repair, 
or replacement of deteriorating elements or 
systems 

—with photographs, overlays, sketches or 
drawings define the scope of the work 
—estimate costs. For major interventions, 
these should be Class C estimates 
—identify the planning document(s), 
cooperative agreements, or other documents 



relating to the treatment and use, the 
structure's management or furnishings. 

Historic Structure Report 

Knowledge about the role of the Historic 
Structure Report in planning and the decision 
making process. A complete understanding of 
the elements that comprise the Historic 
Structure Report and how the Historic 
Structure Assessment is important. Typical 
elements for consideration in a rehabilitation, 
restoration or reconstruction treatment are: 
—justify the treatment, if rehabilitation, 
restoration, or reconstruction, relative to the 
criteria in the "Management Policies" and 
NPS-28 Treatment Standards and the 
structure; if these policies and standards 
cannot be met, recommend changes in 
treatments or uses 

— evaluate the impact of the use on the 
inteerity of the structure, including the 
effect of compliance with regulations on the 
integrity of the structure 
—analyze impact of proposed action on the 
structure, its contents (if any), and the 
historic scene per 36 CFR 800.3; if any 
potential adverse effects are anticipated, 
recommend ways to avoid or mitigate 
—narratively and graphic 1 1 y describe the 
context, appearance, occupation, and use of 
the structure and its setting during 
significant periods or over time, based on 
documents, oral history, or physical 
evidence. Utilize local knowledge and 
expertise regarding the structure, previous 
owners, and local records. Knowledge about 
how to interpret the historical documents in 
the context of early building practices. Cite 
all sources. 

—describe and record existing conditions 
using measured drawings and photography 
prepared to HABS/HAER standards 
—identify the factors affecting preservation 
of the structure, e.g. material, structural, 
environmental, human usage 
—recommend ways of mitigating the impact 
of these factors, including any constraints on 
use 

—prepare an engineering report on safety and 
load-bearing limits as appropriate for use or 
apparent condition 



Catalog of Skills— Putting It All Together.. — page 1 1 



--recommend changes as needed, in the 

approved treatment or use based on 

documentary or physical evidence, the 

condition of the structure or other findings 

—specifically delineate the steps for 

treatment within the categories of 

preservation, rehabilitation, restoration or 

reconstruction 

—prepare preliminary drawings, with 

appropriate details, engineering designs, 

specifications and Class C estimates for the 

approved treatments 

—evaluate need for further study prior to 

treatment and suggest sources 

—update estimating detail (Form 10-802), 

provide cost estimates for recommendations 

with review by appropriate specialists 

—provide recommendations for documenting, 

cataloging, conserving, and storing of 

objects, documents, records, photographs, 

negatives, drawings, and tapes collected or 

produced as a result of the study 

—record all fabric analyses performed, e.g. 

paint, mortar; listing basic data with specific 

recommendations for treatment 

—assess future research potential 

—provide annotated bibliography of sources. 

Data obtained during treatment and not 
previously included in the Historic Structure 
Report should be included in an addendum. 
Further addenda are appropriate whenever 
new data becomes available. 



Historic Structure Preservation Guide 

Knowledge about the historical architect's role 
in preparing an Historic Structure Preser- 
vation Guide (HSPG) directing preservation 
maintenance activities on specific historic and 
prehistoric structures once the structures are 
in a maintainable condition. The HSPG also 
serves as a reference for programming 
continued housekeeping, routine and cyclic 
preservation maintenance for park 
maintenance personnel and is tied to the park 
Maintenance Management System. 



Skills Needed in Planning and Undertaking 
Historic Preservation Projects 

Resource Data Collection and Documentation 
Skills 

Ability to conduct historical/documentary, 
archival research. Skill in how to find or 
locate available sources for references or 
guides in preservation work. Knowledge about 
earlier building practices, materials, costs, 
and nomenclature, so as to be able to interpret 
and derive "clues" from historic 
documentation, including vouchers, insurance 
surveys, plans, photographs, etc. Knowledge 
about regional variation as to uses and dates 
of use. 

Knowledge about how to conduct a "walk- 
through" and "read" a building, that is, how to 
assess the various aspects of a structure's 
historic character, to comprehend the 
structure in terms of its character, its 
construction, its integrity, its physical 
evolution, its craftsmanship, its condition, and 
the probable impact of the proposed new use. 

Knowledge about architectural moldings, their 
nomenclature and construction. Knowledge 
about the evolution of moldings by function 
and by style, that is, how a doorway architrave 
evolves with style from Georgian to Greek 
Revival to be able to use it as an aid in 
assessing the physical evolution of the 
building. Knowledge about how to "read" 
moldings for style and crispness of detail to be 
able to interpret these subtle dating clues. 

Ability to take photographs to assist in 
drawing the structure and to serve as an 
accurate record of the structure; and ability 
to use historic photographs in research of the 
structure. 

Knowledge about how to record existing 
structure configurations through written 
descriptions, sketches, measured drawings, 
photographs, etc.; how to make existing 
condition measured drawings of historic 
structures. 



Skill in geometry and trigonometry to be able 



Catalog of Skills— Putting It Together. ./Data Collection.. — page 12 



to triangulate with a tape or level for the 
purposes of recording historic sites. 

Knowledge of terrestrial surveying techniques 
and the use and interpretation of measured 
drawings of historic structures both urban and 
rural to assist in preservation of site and 
structure. 

Knowledge about the use of other recording 
equipment and methodologies such as 
stereophotogrammetry, rectified photography 

Knowledge about historic graphics such as 
engineering drawings, engravings, historic 
photographs, renderings, different typefaces, 
styles and types of signs, use of colors and 
design to be able to learn more about the 
historic structure and to be able to graphically 
present information in Historic Structures 
Reports, perspectives, presentations for public 
hearings or interpretive use, and working 
drawings. 

Aptitude for illustrative work, to be able for 
example, to draw isometric charts, flow 
charts, exploded view diagrams and 
interpretive drawings; isometric, "exploded" 
and cut-away views of assembled structures, 
machinery, etc. 

Skill in preparing reverse perspectives from 
historic photographs, to be able to design and 
correctly size missing architectural features, 
exterior or interior, such as porches, cornices, 
cupolas, doorway enframements, etc. 

Ability to effectively prepare and illustrate 
technical investigative reports for problem 
areas in historic structures. 



Historic Fabric Investigation and 
Diagnostic Skills 

Knowledge about how to conduct non- 
destructive investigation as to evolution and 
condition to prevent unnecessary damage and 
loss of historic fabric in the attempt to 
discern the evolution and physical condition of 
the structure. 



Knowledge about how to use dating "tools" for 
structures such as nails, tool marks, 
dendrochronology, wood species, mouldings, 
other period details, and regional practices to 
be able to sort out original construction from 
later additions, to be able to identify later 
repairs and alterations of the structure. 

Knowledge about how to take and record 
moulding profiles. 

Knowledge about the use of portable X-ray 
equipment for investigation of hidden 
components in wooden frame buildings looking 
for evidence of earlier structural 
modifications; looking for evidence of hidden 
deterioration; looking for evidence of repairs 
or alterations as evidenced by earlier nails; 
knowledge about how to specify and direct 
such X-ray examination by others such as 
contract specialist. Knowledge about the 
possible radiation hazards. 

Knowledge of techniques used to identify and 
examine building materials relevant to 
building conservation, including microscopy, 
qualitative chemical analysis, identification of 
types of early paints and pigments, 
examination of early plasters to determine 
gypsum content, composition, and source of 
efflorescences. 

Knowledge about how to remove and document 
paint samples and how to analyze paints and 
finishes and knowledge about how to use the 
analysis and take into account the changes 
that may have occurred to the paints or 
finishes over time; and how to use the analysis 
to aid in producing new paints or finishes that 
will be historically correct in all respects. 

Knowledge about how to collect and document 
mortar samples so that it can be analyzed to 
be used as a clue to the evolution of a 
building, for example, as evidence of new 
additions or maintenance practices; and to 
provide information about the constituents 
(cement, sand, fiber, etc.); information about 
the compressive and shear strength of the 
mortar; and information about the visual 
qualities of the mortar (sand color, etc.) 



Catalog of Skills— Data Collection../ ..Investigation — page 13 



Knowledge about proper documentation of 
materials removed during physical 
investigation, e.g. assignment of individual 
Field Specimen numbers or lot numbers, 
preparation of sketches, drawings, and photos 
of conditions during the investigative phase (as 
the fabric is being examined and/or 
removed). Knowledge about the ultimate 
accessioning and cataloging of objects 
removed or discovered during the investigative 
phase, including archeological artifacts, or 
during excavations related to the construction 
phase. 

Knowledge about the safety measures needed 
for removal of certain historic materials or 
features, such as plaster ceilings, asbestos 
siding, or features that are structurally 
unsound. 

Skill in diagnosing problems related to insect 
infestations, biological actions; skill in 
diagnosing problems related to dissimilar 
materials in close juxtaposition; diagnosing 
problems related to metals corrosion, galvanic 
action, rust, etc.; skill in diagnosing structural 
capabilities. 



Plan and Design Solutions and Treatments 

Ability to prescribe temporary stabilization 
procedures. Ability to plan and design short 
term or medium term stabilization treatments 
that are differentiated from permanent 
solutions. 

Knowledge about planning and designing the 
appropriate preservation treatment(s) ~ 
preservation, rehabilitation, restoration, 
reconstruction, etc., for such diverse needs as 
materials repair, structural stabilization; fire 
detection/suppression systems; HVAC and 
other infrastructure systems; security 
systems; proposed additions to historic 
structures; and accessibility for the disabled: 
to be able to produce architectural 
specifications, cost estimates, working 
drawings, and related contract documents; to 
work with manufacturers to develop solutions 
based on current technological capability; to 
communicate with preservation craftspeople 
to develop solutions based on craft capability 



and material availability and limitations; to 
make appropriate use of synthetic materials, 
such as fiberglass, for effecting repairs or 
patching of wood and stone. 

Skill in producing historic structure reports; to 
review and comment on reports by other 
professional disciplines, shop drawings, etc.; 
and historic structure preservation guides; to 
plan systems and programs for inspections, 
monitoring, and cyclical maintenance. 

Project Execution and Completion 

Knowledge and training as Contracting 
Officer's Technical Representative (COTR) to 
keep control of project and to draw on 
expertise as needed within Service. 

Knowledge of construction management 
principles, to be able to deal with the logistics 
of obtaining specialized materials and skills; 
skill in scheduling and supervising preservation 
and architectural conservation projects. 

Skill in preventing possible damage or 
destruction of historic and/or archeological 
evidence in the process of construction. 

Knowledge of the safety and health hazards 
involved in working on historic structures and 
in connection with undertaking various 
preservation treatments. Knowledge about 
potential liabilities, both personal and 
property damage in connection with 
construction and preservation activities, for 
the associated workers, visitors, and the 
public. 

Ability to provide field inspection of and 
coordination of contractors and craftspeople 
once construction phase has started. 

Knowledge about the removal, identification, 
salvage, and storage of historic structure 
components and artifacts, during construction 
to assure their temporary (or permanent) 
preservation. 

Ability to record the project graphically, 
photographically and narratively; to produce 
as-built records upon completion; and to 
archivally file data generated by the project. 



Catalog of Skills— ..Investigation/. .Treatments/. .Completion — page 14 



Selected Skills Needed by Historical Architects 



Introduction i 

Research on Historic Materials, Buildings, Craft Practices 1 

Historic Materials 

Wood 3 

Masonry 5 

Historic Landscapes 8 

Moldings 11 

Historic Building Systems 

Foundations 13 

Structures 15 

Wall Cladding 18 

Roofs 20 

Windows 23 

Flooring 25 

Analysis and Treatments 

Wood 27 

Masonry 31 

Mortar (and Stucco) 35 

Cleaning 36 

Repointing 38 

Structural Movement 39 

Paint 41 

Mechanical and Electrical Systems 43 

Fire Protection 45 

Maintenance Systems 46 



Introduction 

The Selected Skills Needed by Historical Architects expand approximately twenty basic Skills listed in 
the previous "Catalog" to comprise a starting point for career growth in historic architecture. These 
twenty skills have been selected by the authors as "must knows" for historical architects. 

The format for each Selected Skill is as follows: the Catalog Skill is repeated and a basic knowledge 
level is suggested. Examples of basic tasks in this topic area are given as well as what a more 
advanced level might include. Finally, we describe what an imaginary expert might know and be able 
to do. The intent here is to suggest ways to expand basic Catalog Skills, thus helping the architect to 
fill-in or personalize career plans and goals or the needs of their NPS unit. We have also provided a 
selected bibliography. Some of these texts are in print, many will be hard to find or are only available 
from a good architectural library. (Note: The books in the Selected Bibliographies are not placed in 
any specific order of importance.) With this information, you can work at your own pace or with 
others to make the topic and the knowledge your own. 

There are obviously varying levels of proficiency in both understanding and being able to work 
effectively with historic building materials and systems: 

For example, at the Basic Level, an architect acquires familiarity with the literature on the 
subject and has a limited experience in applying this knowledge to real projects. 

At an Advanced Level , the architect has knowledge about the manufacturing, assembly and 
construction processes; has knowledge of a variety of periods and different kinds of materials 
beyond those normally encountered in a geographical area of work; can prepare a paper for 
publication, and/or can teach a technical training session on the topic. The architect has 
knowledge about where the resource people are in a given region. 

The Master Level comes from years of observation and requires a b readth and depth of knowledge 
such that the architect is sought out as an expert, can demonstrate techniques and speak on both 
specific topics and on a nationwide basis (broader range). The architect has knowledge about 
where the specialized resource people are throughout the country. The architect prepares papers 
or teaches on new discoveries in historic materials or on new documentation discoveries. 

You will note that specific historic building materials are mentioned in describing the differing levels 
of proficiency. The most well known materials are equated with the Basic Level; the more unusual or 
uncommon are equated with the Advanced Level. The validity of these levels is affected by the 
geographic location of the architect— some historic building materials and historic building practices 
are common to a particular region. For instance, in the Southwest you would need to be familiar with 
the Chaco culture stonework and adobe (far from being advanced, this would become your basic 
level). These levels are provided to suggest the depth and complexity that comes from a career long 
pursuit of preservation technology. The placement of a skill at a different level is also affected by 
whether information is easily available on a topic, that is, some skills are hard to learn because there 
is a lack of literature and so acquiring in depth knowledge of the skill becomes a Master Level 
accomplishment. Whereas, if the information were more readily available, it might become a Basic 
Level skill. 

These Selected Skills are a resource in developing a plan of study or work in consultation with your 
supervisor. The Washington Office of the National Park Service and/or the Regional Historical 
Architects are available for consultation on planning. For further information on participation and 
enrollment see Participation in the Skills Development Plan. 



Selected Skills— Introduction — page i 



Research on Historic Materials, Historic Buildings, and Craft Practices 



Ability to conduct historical/documentary, archival research. Skill in how to find or locate available 
sources for references or guides in preservation work. Knowledge about earlier building practices, 
materials, costs, and nomenclature, so as to be able to interpret and derive "clues" from historic 
documentation, including vouchers, insurance surveys, plans, photographs, etc. Knowledge about 
regional variation as to uses and dates of use. 



Basic Level 



Advanced Level 



Master Level 



—Ability to do research on such 
records as building permits, 
insurance records and surveys, 
Sanborn maps, street or city 
directories, inventories of 
estates, original architect's 
drawings and specifications, 
construction accounts and 
vouchers, personal diaries and 
correspondence, lawsuits and 
court records, contracts, 
Carpenters Company Rule 
Books, Builders Manuals, 
collections of early views 
including engravings, artists 
drawings, lithographs, 
photographs; oral history and 
personal interviews. While much 
of this research may be done by 
historians, historical architects 
are likely to need to interpret 
the data in light of their 
knowledge of building and craft 
practices and use of materials. 



—Research about building 
practices for the locale and for 
the region including for example 
practices that relate to stone 
quarrying, stone cutting, stone 
carving, transportation of stone 
and stone setting; to be able to 
interpret and understand 
construction vouchers, bills, 
nomenclature, etc. 
—May also include technological 
studies not necessarily keyed to 
the building at hand, for 
example, machine sawn plaster 
lath in the 18th century was 
unique to a particular locale and 
one might assume that it was 
later plaster and not original. 



—Ability to conduct research on 
missing features by doing 
comparative studies as a part of 
the research of extant, similar 
or prototype buildings. Part of 
doing a comparative study would 
involve looking at collections of 
measured drawings. 
—A broad and indepth knowledge 
of documentation and craft 
practices and the ability to do 
research on specialized building 
types such as churches, to be 
able to unravel the whole history 
of the building and what it 
looked like at each period 
including paint colors. 



Selected Bibliography: 

The Restoration Manual by Orin M. Bullock, Jr., Norwalk, Connecticut: 1966. 

"Architectural Research in Restoration," by Lee H. Nelson, in Building Research magazine The Journal 
of the Building Research Institute, Sept. -Oct. 1964, Vol. 1, No. 5. 

"Old-Time New England Magazine," has over the years published numerous building contracts that are 
useful and informative to that region. 

"Positive Evidence: Using Photographs as Documents in Structural History," by Margaret Archibald, 
APT Bulletin, Vol. XII, No. 3, 1980, pages 62-92. 

"Researching 19th-century American Patents: The Journal of the Franklin Institute," by Carole L. 
Perrault, APT Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 2, 1976, page 24-36. 

Tools for the Trades and Crafts: An Eighteenth Century Pattern Book R. Timmins and Sons, 
Birmingham by Kenneth D. Roberts, Fitzwilliam, New Hampshire: 1976. (Book Review by Peter J. 
Priess, APT Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 1, 1977, pages 88-91. 



Selected Skills— Research — page 1 



"Incorporating Photographs into Working Drawings," by John J. Stewart, APT Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 3, 
1977, pages 21-29. 

"The Use of Reverse Perspective in the Deduction of Plans and Elevations from Photographs," by 
Thomas J. Kane, APT Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 3, 1977, pages 30-38. 

"Philadelphia Bricks and the New Bern Jail," by Catherine W. Bishir, APT Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 4, 1977, 
pages 62-66. 

"Early Building Specifications," (three examples), APT Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 1, 1973, pages 68-101. 

"Enhancement of Historic Photographs," by Harvie P. Jones, APT Bulletin, Vol. XI, No. 1, 1979, 

pages 4-12. 

"Computer Image Processing of the Huntsville Depot Photograph," by Jerry Clark, APT Bulletin, 
Vol. XI, No. 1, 1979, pages 13-16. 

"Computer Enhancement of Radiographic Films Use in Structural Investigation of an Historic 
Structure," by William Firschein, APT Bulletin, Vol. XIV, No. 2, 1982, pages 18-25. 

"Photomicrography and the Stanton House Restoration," by Barbara E. Pearson, APT Bulletin, Vol. XVI, 
No. 3, 1983, pages 26-30. 

"The Key-Year Dendrochronology Technique and Its Application in Dating Historic Structures in 
Maryland," by Herman J. Heikkenen and Mark R. Edwards, APT Bulletin, Vol. XV, No. 3, 1983, 
pages 2-25. (Letters and reply to Dendrochronology article in APT Bulletin, Vol. XVI, No. 2, 1984, 
pages 53-55.) 



Selected Skills— Research — page 2 



Historic Materials — Wood 



Knowledge about wood as a historic building material; knowledge about wood's properties, 
performance, and limitations; knowledge about species of wood; knowledge about historic woodworking 
processes; knowledge about tools, "tool marks," and craftsmanship; knowledge about preservation 
treatments, repair and maintenance techniques that have become part of the historic fabric, for 
example, the kind of nails used, the way wood was glued or pieced in or dovetailed to distinguish later 
alterations and repairs as dating "tools." 



Basic Level 



Advanced Level 



Master Level 



—Visual identification of 
common wooden building 
materials. 

--General knowledge of historic 
wood properties and 
characteristics such as strength, 
workability, durability. 
--Manufacturing of wood and 
historic grading practices (flat 
sawn, quarter sawn, pit sawn, 
sash sawn, radial sawn, circular 
sawn), importance of density, 
effects of knots and other 
defects. 

--Causes of deterioration, what 
are the mechanisms of rot. 



--Ability to use the knowledge 
about tool marks and tool 
technology as dating "tools". 
—How to determine species and 
characteristics of less commonly 
used materials. 
--Knowledge of the effects of 
ultraviolet light and 
embrittlement; the effects of 
chemical treatments on the 
durability of historic wood. 
— Understanding the process of 
manufacturing millwork blades. 
— Sources and/or methods of 
finding unusual materials. 



—Be able to demonstrate using 
hand tools and other techniques 
to reproduce historic materials 
and historic workmanship. 
—Ability to grind molding 
blades. 

—Be able to relate modern 
materials to historic materials 
and how to use modern woods to 
replicate historic woods, 
matching grains and using 
different species. 



Selected Bibliography: 

Modern Engineering Practice: Vol. XII, Ventilating, Heating, Plumbing, Carpentry, Index edited by 
Frank W. Gunsaulus, Chicago: 1906. pages 317-456. 

Building Construction and Superintendence by F.E. Kidder, rev. and enlarged by Thomas Nolan, Part II 
Carpenters' Work, 9th edition rev., New York: 1915. pages 1-88. 

"Mr. Smart's Circular Saw Mill c. 1815," by Orville W. Carroll, APT Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 1, 1973, 
pages 58-64. 

"Sawdust Trail," by Charles E. Peterson, APT Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 2, 1973, pages 84-153. 

"Restoration of the Bertolet Sawmill," by John M. Dickey, APT Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 2, 1973, 
pages 154-161. 

"The Introduction of the Circular Saw in the Early 19th Century," by John O. Curtis, APT Bulletin, 
Vol. V, No. 2, 1973, pages 162-189. 

The Framed Houses of Massachusetts Bay, 1625-1725 by Abbott Lowell Cummings, Cambridge, Mass.: 
1979, especially see Chapter 4, "The Builders and Their Resources." 

Dictionary of Tools Used in the Woodworking and Allied Trades, c. 1700-1970 by R.A. Salaman, 
London: 1975. 



Selected Skills— Historic Materials-Wood — page 3 



"Circular Saws and the History of Technology," by Norman Ball, APT Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 3, 1975, 
pages 79-89. 

"The Earliest Wood-Processing Industry in North America, 1607-23," by A J.H. Richardson, APT 
Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 4, 1973, pages 81-8*. 

"Building in the North," by Angus Sherwood and Norman Wells, APT Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 3, 1974, 
pages 1-25. 

"The Use of Planks in Wall Construction," by T. Ritchie, APT Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 3, 1974, 
pages 26-34. 

"Indications for Research in the History of Wood-Processing Technology," by A. J.H. Richardson, APT 
Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 3, 1974, pages 35-146. 

"Historical Checklist of the Pines of Eastern North America," by Charles van Ravenswaay, Winterthur 
Portfolio 7, pages 175-215. 

"Ohio Waterpowered Sawmills," by Donald A. Hutslar, Ohio History, Vol. 84, Nos. 1-2, Winter-Spring 
1975, pages 1-56. 

Building With Wood by John I. Rempel, Toronto, 1967. 

Woodworking Tools 1600-1900 by Peter C. Welsh, contributions from the Museum of History and 
Technology Paper 51, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.: 1966. 

Woodworking Tools at Shelburne Museum by Frank H. Wildung, Museum Panphlet Series No. 3, 
Shelburne, VT: 1957. 

America's Wooden Age: Aspects of Its Early Technology by Brooke Hindle, Tarrytown, New York: 
1975. 



Selected Skills— Historic Materials-Wood -- page 4 



Historic Materials — Masonry 



Knowledge about historic masonry materials such as brick, stone, terracotta and the mortars and 
stuccos used on them; knowledge about the history of masonry materials — their ingredients, 
composition and manufacture; knowledge about the variations in regional materials, sizes of units, 
color; knowledge about the impact of the craft processes and changes in technology over time that 
affected the size and quality of the products, for example, handmade bricks versus machine made 
bricks; knowledge about the great variety of stones used for American building construction; the types, 
their properties and characteristics including geological information; knowledge about the history of 
the stone working industry; knowledge about the use of field stone versus cut stone; knowledge about 
the tools, craftsmanship and "tool marks" on walling; knowledge about bedding planes for stone and 
their importance in the integrity of the system. 



Basic Level 

— General knowledge of historic masonry 
and mortar properties and characteristics 
such as strength, workability, durability. 
—Knowledge of how lime was produced 
historically including the burning of 
limestone and the hydration of lime. 
—Be able to apply and demonstrate an 
undertanding of the Introduction to Early 
American Masonry or similar texts on the 
masonry building types in the area a person 
is working in. 

—Understanding the basic differences 
between the materials and craft techniques 
involved (hand and machine manufactured 
bricks). 

—Use knowledge of historic masonry 
practices as a dating "tool", to identify 
changes and alterations, to evaluate the 
maintenance that may have occurred over 
time (such as repointing). 
— Ability to determine whether sedimentary 
stones have been installed properly relative 
to the bedding planes. 
—Understanding the historic evolution of 
masonry materials to know the differences 
of their constituents, size, color, materials 
and character to use in combination with 
the above to prepare the Historic Structure 
Assessment, and/or the Historic Structure 
Report. 

—Being able to apply this information to 
prepare specifications and/or direct the 
work for masonry repairs or replacement 
and be able to inspect materials to assure 
that work and materials meet the specifi- 
cations and the Standards. 
—Knowledge about historic painting 
practices on masonry, such as pencilling. 



Advanced Level 

—Knowledge of a variety 
of periods or different 
kinds of historic masonry 
other than that normally 
encountered in the 
incumbent's work area. 
Prepare a paper for 
publication or lead a 
training session on a 
subject like brickwork in 
early 19th century 
Tidewater Virginia, or river 
rock masonry on 
bungalows. 

—More knowledge about 
manufacturing and 
construction processes. 
—Knowledge of historic 
stuccos, their constituents, 
application, and stylistic 
attributes, such as scoring, 
rustication, pencilling, and 
surface finishes. 
—Knowledge about the use 
of stuccos historically; 
their constituents and 
application; their stylistic 
attributes such as scoring, 
rustication, pensilling, and 
different surface finishes 
such as pointing the stucco 
to look like unit masonry. 



Master Level 

--More in depth knowledge 
with greater breadth, for 
example, knowledge about 
brickwork throughout the 
Mid-Atlantic states. 
—Knowledge about more 
specialized subjects like 
cobblestone buildings and 
galletting in foundation 
joints. 

—Knowledge of finish coats 
and renderings over wattle 
and daub. 

—Knowledge of application 
of stucco over wood frame 
construction. 

—Knowledge about regional 
uses of stucco. 
—Knowledge about stucco 
attachments historically. 
—Knowledge about modern 
formulations and 
applications of stucco to 
masonry including 
permastone. 

—Knowledge about finish 
coats and renderings over 
wattle and daub. 
—Knowledge about the 
application of stucco over 
wood frame structures. 



Selected Skills— Historic Materials-Masonry — page 5 



Selected Bibliography: 

Introduction to Early American Masonry ... by Harley J. McKee, Washington, D.C.: 1973. 

"Notes on the Evolution of Virginia Brickwork from the 17th Century to late 18th Century," by Calder 
Loth, APT Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 2, 1974, pages 82-120. 

"Brick Bibliography" by John R. Volz, APT Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 4, 1975, pages 38-49. 

The Builders Dictionary ... (2 volumes) by A. Bettesworth and C. Hitch originally printed in 1734, 
reprinted by the Association for Preservation Technology, Washington, D.C.: 1981. 

Comments on Virginia Brickwork before 1800 by Herbert A. Claiborne (Walpole Society, 1957) 

Conservation of Historic Buildings by Bernard M. Feilden, London: 1982. 

Stone: Properties, Durability in Man's Environment by Erhard M. Winkler, New York: 1973. 

"Notes on the Treatment of Oil and Grease Staining on a Masonry Surface," by Frank G. Matero and 
Jo Ellen Freese, APT Bulletin, Vol. X, No. 2, 1978, pages 132-141. 

"Early Ways of Quarrying and Working Stone in the United States," by Harley 3. McKee, APT Bulletin, 
Vol. Ill, No. 1, 1971, pages 44-58. 

Stones for Building and Decoration by George P. Merrill, second edition, New York: 1897. (First 
edition 1891.) Excellent material on physical and chemical properties of stone, where it is found and 
how and when it was used, including a section on weathering. 

The Marble-Workers' Manual... translated from the French by M.L. Booth with an appendix concerning 
American marbles; Philadelphia: 1865. 

"The Manufacture of Architectural Terracotta and Faience in the United Kingdom," by John Fidler, 
APT Bulletin, Vol XV, No. 2, 1983, pages 27-32. 

"Chapter V, Strengths of Bricks, Stone, Mass-Concrete and Masonry," by Charles M. Gay in Kidder- 
Parker Architects and Builders Handbook by Frank E. Kidder and Harry Parker, 18th edition, New 
York: 1945. 

International Library of Technology, Vol. 31D by International Textbook Company, Scranton: 1922. 
Includes chapters on Common Brickwork, Face and Ornamental Brickwork, Architectural Terra Cotta, 
Hollow Tile, Building Stone. 

Building Construction and Superintendence by F.E. Kidder, rev. and enlarged by Thomas Nolan, Part I 
Masons' Work, 9th edition rev., New York: 1914. Includes Chapter IV on Limes, Cements and Mortars; 
Chapter V on Building Stones; Chapter VI on Cut-Stonework, Chapter VII on Bricks and Brickwork; 
Chapter VIII on Architectural Terra-cotta; Chapter IX on Fire-proofing of Buildings; and Chapter X on 
Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Construction. 

The Building Trades Handbook by International Correspondence Schools, 5th edition, Scranton: 1924. 
Includes sections on Masonry, Brickwork, Terra-Cotta. 

"A Search for Coade Stone in America," by Nathaniel P. Neblett, APT Bulletin, Vol. Ill, No. 4, 1971, 
pages 68-71. 

"The Bricklayers Company of the City and County of Philadelphia," by George L. Wrenn III, APT 
Bulletin , Vol. Ill, No. 4, 1971, pages 72-75. 

International Library of Technology Vol. 30B, on Masonry, Carpentry, Joinery and Steel Square: 
Scranton: 1909. Includes sections on "Cements," "Concrete Construction," "Stone Masonry," "Stone 
Arches." 

Cyclopedia of Architecture, Carpentry and Building Vol. IV on Reinforced Concrete, Steam Fitting, 
Electricity, Chicago: 1908. Pages 1 1-134 on Reinforced Concrete. 

Selected Skills— Historic Materials-Masonry — page 6 



"Chapter 5, Brick and Stone: Handicraft to Machine," by Harley J. McKee, in Building Early America 
by the Carpenters' Company of the City and County of Philadelphia, Charles E. Peterson, editor, 
Radnor, Pennsylvania: 1976. 

The Role of Concrete in Conservation of Historic Buildings Cembureau, Paris, France: 1976 

"Terra Cotta as a Building Material A Bibliography," by Theodore H.M. Prudon, a Supplement to the 
APT Communique, Vol. V, No. Ill, June 1976, (9 pages). 

The Framed Houses of Massachusetts Bay, 1625-1725 by Abbott Lowell Cummings, Cambridge, Mass.: 
1979 

"Sawing Stone in Canada, 1816," by J. -Raymond Denault and A.J.H. Richardson, APT Bulletin, Vol. V, 
No. 4, 1973, pages 76-80. 

The Story of Brick, by Charles Ellery Hall originally printed 1905, reprinted Thrills, New York: 1974? 

"The Use of Sandstone in New York City in the 19th Century," by Frank G. Matero and Jeanne M. 
Teutonico, APT Bulletin, Vol. XIV, No. 2, 1982, pages 11-17. 

A Treatise on Civil Engineering by D.H. Mahan, New York: 1873, 1875. 

"Early Brick Laws in Massachusetts," by Orville W. Carroll, APT Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 2, 1976, 
pages 20-23. 

"The 1894 Don Valley Pressed Brick Works Catalogue," with introduction by Jean Bacso, APT Bulletin, 
Vol. IX, No. 1, 1977, pages 30-73. 

"Roman Stone and Other Decorative Artificial Stones," by T. Ritchie, APT Bullet in, Vol. X, No. 1, 
1978, pages 20-34. 

"Early Development of the Artistic Concrete Block: The Case of the Boyd Brothers," by Ann Gillespie, 
APT Bulletin, Vol. XI, No. 2, 1979, pages 30-52. 

"Notes on Dichromatic Brickwork in Ontario," by T. Ritchie, APT Bulleti n, Vol. XI, No. 2, 1979, 
pages 60-75. 

"Stone Finishing Marks," by William J. Higgins, APT Bulletin, Vol. XI, No. 3, 1979, pages 11-34. 

"The Making of Oil Brick in Virginia," by Calder Loth, APT Bulletin, Vol. XI, No. 3, 1979, pages 35-43. 

"Notes on the Manufacture of Hand-Made Bricks" by Thomas L. McGrath (and 2 notes), APT Bulletin, 
Vol. XI, No. 3, 1979, pages 88-97. 

"Report of Visit to Colorado Marble Quarry — 1908," by Owen Brainard, introduction by Patrick Boyd 
Porter, APT Bulletin, Vol. XI, No. 3, 1979, pages 98-102. 

"A History of the Tunnel Kiln and Other Kilns for Burning Bricks," by T. Ritchie, APT Bulletin, 
Vol. XII, No. 3, 1980, pages 46-61. 



Selected Skills—Historic Materials-Masonry — page 7 



Historic Landscapes 

Knowledge of historic designed landscapes, gardens, plantings including vistas, knowledge of vegetation 
and topography, knowledge of engineering in planning drainage and in planning pedestrian and vehicular 
circulation; knowledge of other landscape elements such as fencing, gates, walks, greenhouses, 
gazebos, bird houses, storm cellars, cemeteries; and knowledge of historic vernacular landscapes to be 
able to identify features, dates of changes, particular uses and time period; understanding how to 
record, preserve and maintain an historic landscape or historic vernacular landscape. Knowledge of 
historic landscape furnishings such as benches, lighting, sculpture, signage, and trash cans. 



Basic Level 

—Knowledge of architectural 
and landscape styles to know 
which landscape styles go with 
what buildings. 
—Ability to recognize design 
intent in the landscape 
surrounding a historic building to 
be able to preserve the 
significant features during a 
restoration or other preservation 
treatment on the building. 
—Knowledge of approximately 
30 commonly used landscape 
plants; knowledge of how to have 
unknown plants identified and 
where to go for assistance. 
—Knowledge of what the 
different architectural features 
in landscapes looked like at 
different periods in history, for 
example, what did fences and 
walls look like? 
—Knowledge about basic 
drainage systems such as storm 
drains, drainage of water away 
from buildings, underground 
drains, etc. 

—Ability to have some 
recognition of scale and 
character in foundation 
plantings. 



Advanced Level 

— Knowledge of how plants were 
used at different time periods, 
knowledge of the commonly used 
plant materials at different 
times; and knowledge of how 
plants are used today. 
—Knowledge of surveying 
practices to be able to do 
topographies. Ability to do field 
measurements. 
—Ability to identify plant 
materials or species for a 
survey. 

— Knowledge about substitute 
plant materials. 
—Ability to specify plants 
suitable for foundation plantings. 



Master Level 

--Knowledge of the history of 
early urban streets, drainage, 
sewers, conversion of streams 
into underground drains, for 
example in Philadelphia how 
grading the streets was done to 
improve drainage, or in New 
Orleans how the system of ponds 
was developed to the water 
could drain into those. 
—Knowledge of patent cast 
stone pavings and special pattern 
bricks used for walkways. 



Selected Bibliography: 

"Eighteenth Century Cultural Process in Delaware Valley Folk Building," by Henry Glassie, Winterthur 
Portfolio 7, pages 29-57, 1972, Charlottesville, VA. 

"Landscape Preservation," APT Bulletin, Vol. XV, No. 4, 1983 (Note: the entire issue is on this 
subject). 

The Yearbook of Landscape Architecture: Historic Preservation by Richard L. Austin et al, editors, 
New York: 1983. 

Landscapes and Gardens for Historic Buildings by Rudy Favretti and Joy Putnam Favretti, Nashville, 
1978. 



Selected Skills— Historic Landscapes -- page 8 



Cultural Landscapes; Rural Historic Districts in the National Park Service by Robert Z. Melnick, 
Washington, D.C.: 1984. 

Reading the Landscape of America by May Theilgaard Watts, New York: 1975. 

Cottage Residences... by Andrew Jackson Downing, New York & London, many editions from 1842 to 
1868. 

Rural Essays... by Andrew Jackson Downing, New York, many editions from 1853 to 1881. 

A Treatise on the Theory an Practice of Landscape Gardening Adapted to North America by Andrew 
Jackson Downing, New York 3c London, many editions from 1841 to 1879. 

Design on the Land by Norman T. Newton, Cambridge, Mass.: 1971. 

Common Landscape of America — 1580-1845 by John R. Stilgoe, New Haven, CT: 1982. 

"Downing's Newburgh Villa," by Arthur Channing Downs, Jr., APT Bulletin, Vol. IV, No. 3/4, 1972, 
pages 1-113. 

"Historic Landscape Restoration in the United States and Canada: An Annotated Source Outline," 
compiled by Meredith Sykes and John Stewart, APT Bulletin, Vol. IV, No., 3/4, 1972, pages 114-158. 

Fences, Gates and Bridges, by George A. Martin, Brattleboro, Vermont: 1974. 

Barns, Sheds and Outbuildings by Bryon D. Halsted, Brattleboro, Vermont: 1977. 

"Warren H. Manning's Drawings," by Robert R. Harvey, APT Bulletin, Vol. X, No. 1, 1978, pages 38-49. 

"The Introduction of the American Water Ram, ca. 1843-1850," by Arthur Channing Downs, Jr., APT 
Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 4, 1975, pages 56-103. 

"The American Water Ram, Part II," by Arthur Channing Downs, Jr., APT Bulletin, Vol. XI, No. 1, 
1979, pages 81-94. 

"The Landscape: The Emerging Historic Preservation Resource," by William H. Tishler, APT Bulletin, 
Vol. XI, No. 4, 1979, pages 9-25. 

"Historic Gardens in Canada and the United States," edited by John J. Stewart, APT Newsletter, 
Vol. II, No. Ill, June 1973 (22 pages). 

"How to Evaluate and Nominate Designed Historic Landscapes," by J. Timothy Keller and Genevieve P. 
Keller, National Register of Historic Places Bulletin // 18 (includes a 3-4 page bibliography). 
Washington, D.C.: 1986. 

"Ornamental Ironwork," section in Vol. Ill of A Treatise on Architecture and Building Construction 
International Correspondence Schools, Scranton, Pennsylvania: 1899. 

"The Late Nineteenth Century Development of the Queen Square Gardens, Charlottetown, Prince 
Edward Island," by Mary K. Cullen, APT Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 3, 1977, pages 1-20. 

"George Laing — Landscape Gardener, Hamilton, Canada West 1808 (Aberdeen) — 1871 (Hamilton)," by 
Paul Grimwood, Owen R. Scott, and Marilyn Watson, APT Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 3, 1977, pages 52-64. 

"Gardens of Shelburne, Nova Scotia 1785-1820," by Mary Mackay Harvey, APT Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 2, 
1975, page 32-72. 

"The Case for Commemoration of Historic Landscapes and Gardens," by John Stewart and Susan 
Buggey, APT Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 2, 1975, pages 99-123. 

"A Short Note on Foundation Planting and the Problem of Over-Growth," by John J. Stewart, APT 
Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 3, 1976, pages 74-80. 



Selected Skills— Historic Landscapes — page 9 



"Landscape Archeology: Existing Plant Material on Historic Sites as Evidence of Buried Features and 
as Survivors of Historic Species," by John J. Stewart, APT Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 3, 1977, pages 65-72. 

"Documenting a Victorian Landscape in the Midwest," by Robert R. Harvey, APT Bulletin, Vol. IX, 
No. 3, 1977, pages 73-99. 

"Restoration of the Centennial Fence at Washington's Headquarters State Historic Site," by Thomas D. 
Ciampa and Nancy Coldenberg, APT Bulletin, Vol. XIV, No. 3, 1982, pages 26-35. 

Note: be sure and check for the illustrated county histories that were common in the 19th century, 
they are likely to have illustrations of farm settings which would be useful in showing fencing patterns 
and out buildings. 



Selected Skills—Historic Landscapes -- page 10 



Historic Materials — Moldings 

Knowledge about architectural moldings, their nomenclature and construction. Knowledge about the 
evolution of moldings by function and by style, that is, how a doorway architrave evolves with style 
from Georgian to Greek Revival to be able to use it as an aid in assessing the physical evolution of the 
building. Knowledge about how to "read" moldings for style and crispness of detail to be able to 
interpret these subtle dating clues. 



Basic Level 

—Knowledge about general 
molding configurations for 
various architectural features 
such as cornices, chair rails, 
architraves, for various periods 
and styles of architecture. 
—Knowledge about moldings and 
the tools needed to make them 
whether the moldings were made 
of wood or plaster. 
—Understanding of the 
attachments for moldings and 
how this can be used as a dating 
"tool." 

— Ability to sketch, draw and 
record moldings. 
—Ability to use moldings as 
dating tools such as muntin 
profiles. 

—Knowledge about their 
function and style and 
construction, for example every 
molding type has a specific 
function. 



Advanced Level 

—Knowledge of how moldings 
were embellished with carvings 
and the various types of carving. 



Master Level 

—Knowledge in more depth and 
in a given locale or region that 
would reflect your knowledge 
about the economic status of the 
owners, for example, of the 
difference between high style, 
middle style and specification- 
built workers houses. 
— Knowledge about stiles and 
rails as a basic part of 
construction practice. 



Selected Bibliography: 

"Brief Notes on the Subjects of Analyzing Paints and Mortars and the Recording of Moulding Profiles," 
by Morgan W. Phillips, APT Bulletin, Vol. X, No. 2, 1978, page 77-89. 

"Dating Architectural Moulding Profiles — A Study of 18th and 19th Century Moulding Plane Profiles 
in New England," by Andrea M. Gilmore, APT Bulletin, Vol. X, No. 2, 1978, page 90-117. 

Building Construction and Superintendence by F.E. Kidder, rev. and enlarged by Thomas Nolan, Part II 
Carpenters' Work, 9th edition rev., New York: 1915. pages 463-483. 

"Tools of the Woodworker: Hand Planes," by John I. Rempel, AASLH Technical Leaflet No. 24, 
"History News," magazine, Vol. 19, No. 12, Oct. 1964. 

"Simplified Methods for Reproducing Wood Mouldings," by Gordie Whittington, APT Bulletin, Vol. Ill, 
No. 4, 1971, pages 48-53. 

The Restoration Manual by Orin M. Bullock, Jr., Norwalk, Connecticut: 1966. 

APT Bulletin, Vol. X, No. 4, 1978, entire issue is on "Architectural Mouldings." (Letters on this issue 
are in APT Bulletin, Vol. XII, No. 1, 1980, pages 4-6. 

"Central Pennsylvania Farm House Interiors: 1810-1850," by Richard W. Pencak, APT Bulletin , 
Vol. XIII, No. 4, 1981, pages 38-42. 



Selected Skills— Historic Materials-Moldings — page 11 



"A Plea for the Study of Mouldings and a Review of Some Sources," by Martin E. Weaver, APT Bulletin, 
Vol. IX, No. 1, 1977, pages 81-8*. 

You should also consult such 18th century manuals as the Rules for Drawing the Several Parts of 
Architecture by James Gibbs, London, 2nd edition, 1736; and the variety of 19th century carpenters' 
and builders' manuals such as Detail, Cottage and Constructive Architecture... by Amos Jackson 
Bicknell, New York: several editions from 1873 to 1886. 



Selected Skills—Historic Materials-Moldings -- page 12 



Historic Building Systems — Foundations 

Knowledge about historic foundations ranging from simple piers or posts, to masonry foundations, to 
simple footings, to spread footings, or reverse arches, historic retaining walls. 

Basic Level Advanced Level Master Level 



—Familiarity with engineering 
and construction treatises of the 
19th century. 

—Understanding the basic types 
of foundations, soils as a 
supporting medium as it relates 
to soil constituents, moisture 
content. 

—Understand standard and 
unusual foundation construction 
systems (such as the reverse 
arch). 

—Be able to correlate 
applicability of reference 
materials and records to specific 
buildings. 

—Knowledge of dampproofing 
courses in foundations. 
—Knowledge of parging and 
pargetting practices. 
—Knowledge about different 
foundation practices such as 
wood timber on grade, mud sills, 
straight footings, step footings, 
continuous foundations, wooden 
piers, splayed foundations. 
—Knowledge about the historic 
use of concrete for foundations. 
—Knowledge about the archeo- 
logical values of builders' 
trenches. 



- -Knowledge of historic 
waterfront construction or 
construction in marshy tidelands, 
e.g. New Orleans. 
—Knowledge about historic 
piling and cribbing construction. 
—Knowledge about underpinning 
of historic foundations. 
—Knowledge about foundations 
for special building types such as 
lighthouses and forts. 



—Knowledge of historic cassions. 
—Knowledge of historic 
modifications to foundations, 
e.g. Wells Cathedral, or the 
Washington Monument. 



Selected Bibliography: 

A Treatise on Civil Engineering by D.H. Mahan, New York: 1875. 

"History of Building Foundations in Chicago," by Ralph B. Peck, University of Illinois Bulletin Vol. 45, 
No. 29: 1/2/1948. 

Conservation of Historic Buildings by Bernard M. Feilden; Part I, Chapter 6, "Structural Elements IV: 
Foundations," London: 1982. 

Elements of Civil Engineering... by 3ohn Millington, Philadelphia and Richmond: 1839. 

Early Connecticut Meetinghouses by J. Frederick Kelly, Vol. 1, pages xl-xli, New York: 1948. 

Early Years of Modern Civil Engineering by Kirby Laurson, Yale University Press, 1932. 

Building Stone, Foundations, Masonry, by William S. Lownders, International Textbook Company, 
Scranton, PA 1930. 



Selected Skills— Historic Building Systems-Foundations -- page 13 



Foundation Walls for All Classes of Buildings, Pile Driving, Building Stones, and Bricks, Pier and Wall 
Constuction, Mortars, Limes, Cements, Concretes, Stuccos, Etc. by George T. Powell, William T. 
Com stock Publisher, 1889. 

The Architect, Engineer, and Operatives Builders Construction Manual by Christopher Davy, London 
Press, 18*1. 

"The Art of Preparing Foundations for All Kinds of Buildings with Particular Illustrations of the 
'Method of Isolated Piers as Followed in Chicago'", by Frederick Baumann, 1873, Reprinted in part, 
Engineering Experiment Station Bulletin Series No. 373, University of Illinois, 19*8. 

Healthy Foundations for Houses by Glenn Brown (reprinted from the Sanitary Engineer, a series of 
articles during the year 188*) Van Nostrand, Published, New York, 1885. 

Kidder-Parker Architects' and Builders' Handbook by Frank E. Kidder and Harry Parker, 18th edition, 
New York: 19*5. Includes Chapter II on Foundations by Daniel E. Moran; Chapter III on Masonry 
Walls, Footings for Light Buildings, Cements and Concretes by Charles M. Gay; and Chapter IV on 
Retaining-Walls, Breast- Walls, and Vault Walls by Grenville Temple Snelling. 

Building Construction and Superintendence by F.E. Kidder, rev. and enlarged by Thomas Nolan, Part I 
Masons' Work, 9th edition rev., New York: 191*. Includes Chapter 1 on Foundations on Firm Soils; 
Chapter 2 on Foundations on Compressible Soils; Chapter 3 on Masonry Footings and Foundation Walls, 
Shoring and Underpinning. 

"The Fortresses of Louisbourg and Its Cartographic Evidence," by John Fortier, APT Bulletin, Vol. IV, 
No. 1/2, 1972, pages 3-40, 109 figures. 

International Library of Technology Vol. 30B, on Masonry, Carpentry, Joinery and Steel Square: 
Scranton: 1909. Sections on "Excavating, Shoring and Piling," "Footings and Foundations", "Areas, 
Vaults, and Retaining Walls." 

"Cemetery Wall Restoration, New Harmony, Indiana," by Thomas J. Kane, APT Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 3, 
1977, pages 39-51. 

"Fort Frederick Wall: Analysis and Stabilization," by Ross M. Kimmel, APT Bulletin, Vol. XVI, No. 2, 
198*, pages 32-*3. 

Foundations., by Jules Gaudard, New York, 1878 and 1891. 

Practical Treatise on Foundations... by William MacFarland Patton, New York, 1893. 

Ordinary Foundations by Charles Evan Fowler, New York and London, 1905. 

Soil Mechanics Related to Buildings by John H.G. King and Derek A. Creswell, Chapter II on Principles 
of Site Investigations for Building Foundations; Chapter VII on Choice of Foundation; Chapter VIII on 
Depth of Foundations: Tree Root Action in Clay Soils and Soil Failures; London, 195*. 

DM 7.2 Foundation and Earth Structures, available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Stock 
Number 008-050-00221-2, price $8.00. 



Selected Skills—Historic Building Systems-Foundations -- page 1* 



Historic Building Systems — Structures 

Knowledge about historic structural systems such as masonry wall bearing construction and various 
combinations of masonry arches (semi-circular, elliptical, flat arches), vaulted construction (barrel 
vaults, elliptical vaults, tile vaults, domes, pendentives), cavity wall construction, and vault systems 
such as iron and terracotta beams and arches. Knowledge about various types of historic wooden 
framing systems, including regional variations of pegged-braced frames, wooden wall trusses, wooden 
floor framing systems, wooden roof trusses, roof framing, historic balloon framing, platform framing, 
etc. Knowledge about prefabrication of wall, floor and roof framing in early buildings and all the 
assorted connecting devices used for historic wooden structural systems including wooden pegs, nails, 
bolts, and tie rods. Knowledge about structural systems made of adobe, brick, stone, concrete, wood 
and steel. 



Basic Level 



Advanced Level 



Master Level 



—Familiarity with the historic 
architectural and civil 
engineering treatises on building 
construction, including 
carpentry. 

—Familiarity with scholarly 
regional treatises on various 
subjects relating to structural 
systems, barn and bridge 
framing, etc. 
—Recording and making 
measured drawings of structural 
systems, wall framing trusses 
and vaulting. 

—Knowledge of wall bearing 
composite materials such as iron 
beams with masonry vaults, arch 
and lintel systems, floor and roof 
systems of masonry, steel and 
wood, beams, trusses and slab, 
frame and arch systems. 
—Framing and trussing in steel 
or wood or reinforced concrete. 
—Knowledge about the 
development, evolution and 
application of structural systems 
in terms of general systems, e.g. 
wall systems with air openings,. 
floor systems, roof and external 
surface systems. 



—Knowledge of the evolution 
and use of unusual building types 
like Guastavino tile vaults, 
domes and stairways. 
—Ability to use nails and 
connecting devices as dating 
"tools"; knowledge about 
fastening systems and jointing 
systems. 

—Knowledge of unusual systems 
like rammed earth or adobe 
bearing walls. 

—Sufficient depth of knowledge 
in order to recognize differences 
of periods and regional 
applications of systems in the 
basic type, for example to know 
the regional differences between 
17th century framing systems, 
knowledge of plank frame 
buildings. 

—Knowledge of precast 
prestressed structural members 
and structural systems other 
than buildings like bridges, 
canals, fortifications including 
casemated forts of the Third 
System. 

— Knowledge about floor framing 
systems including sawn joists as 
well as puncheon joists. 



—The expert or authority on 

various aspects of structural 

systems whether masonry or 

wood, especially regional 

aspects. 

—Ability to teach and publish on 

this topic. 

—Knowledge of regional, ethnic, 

and short period variations of 

historic structural systems. 

—Knowledge of fastening 

systems. 

—Knowledge of the use of logs 

sticking in the ground and the 

effect of deterioration. 

—Knowledge of unusual 

structures like the Statue of 

Liberty. 

—Knowledge of anomaly 

systems; things that weren't 

built the way they were supposed 

to be built. 

—Knowledge of the development 

of historic construction systems 

for erecting structures including 

scaffoldings, shoring, cranes, 

centering, and other temporary 

erection systems. 

—Knowledge of historic 

prefabricated buildings, e.g. a 

prefab mission house in Hawaii 

that was sent from Connecticut. 

—Knowledge about sod houses. 



Selected Skills— Historic Building Systems-Structures — page 15 



Selected Bibliography: 

Carpentry Made Easy by William E. Bell, Philadelphia: 1858 (and numerous later editions) 

The Framed Houses of Massachusetts Bay, 1625-1725 by Abbott Lowell Cummings, Cambridge, Mass.: 
1979 

The New World Dutch Barn, a Study of Its Characteristics, Its Structural System, and Its Probable 
Erection Procedures by John Fitchen, Syracuse, NY: 1968, 1969. 

Building With Wood by John I. Rempel, Toronto, 1967 

The Rules of Work of the Carpenters' Company of the City and County of Philadelphia 1786 
introduction by Charles E. Peterson, Princeton: 1971 

American Building by Carl W. Condit, Chicago, 1968. 

Building Early America by the Carpenters' Company of the City and County of Philadelphia, Charles E. 
Peterson editor, Radnor, Pennsylvania: 1976. 

Kidder-Parker Architects' and Builders' Handbook by Frank E. Kidder and Harry Parker, 18th edition, 
New York: 1945. Includes Chapter VIII on The Stability of Masonry Arches by Grenville Temple 
Snelling; Chapter IX on Reactions and Bending Moments for Beams by Charles P. Warren; Chapter XII 
on Resistance to Shear, Riveted Joints, Pins and Bolts by Herman Claude Berry; Chapter XIV on 
Strength of Columns, Posts and Struts by Hardy Cross and F. Theodore Mavis; "Chapter XVI on 
Strength of Built-Up, Flitched and Trussed Wooden Girders by R.P,. Davis; Chapter XX on Wood 
Framing by Charles M. Gay; Chapter XXI on Wooden Mill and Warehouse Construction by A. P. 
Stradling; Chapter XXIV on Types of Roof Trusses by C.E. Palmer; Chapter XXIX on Domical and 
Vaulted Structures by Edward F. Ries. 

Building Construction and Superintendence by F.E. Kidder, rev. and enlarged by Thomas Nolan, Part I 
Masons' Work, 9th edition rev., New York: 1914. Includes Chapter XI on Iron and Steel Supports for 
Mason work-Skeleton Construction. 

Building Construction and Superintendence by F.E. Kidder, rev. and enlarged by Thomas Nolan, Part II 
Carpenters' Work, 9th edition rev., New York: 1915. pages 89-103. 

The Building Trades Handbook by International Correspondence Schools, 5th edition, Scranton: 1924. 

Seacoast Fortifications of the United States: An Introductory History by Emanuel Raymond Lewis. 
Washington, D.C.: 1970. 

"The Fortresses of Louisbourg and Its Cartographic Evidence," by John Fortier, APT Bulletin, Vol. IV, 
No. 1/2, 1972, pages 3-40, 109 figures. 

Cyclopedia of Architecture, Carpentry and Building Vol. V on Steel Construction, Elevators; Chicago: 
1908. Pages 11-314 on Steel Construction. 

The Development of Carpentry 1200-1700: An Essex Study by Cecil A. Hewett, Devon, England and 
New York: 1969. Book Review in APT Bulletin , Vol. Ill, No. 1, 1971, pages 8-10. 

The Barn..., by Eric Arthur and Dudley Witney, Greenwich, CT: 1972. 

"Essay on the Theory and History of Cohesive Construction Applied Especially to the Timbrel Vault," 
by Rafael Guastavino, Boston: 1892, 1893. (Book Review in American Architect and Building News, 
Vol. 52, pages 94-95, June 6, 1896.) 

"The Transfer of Thin Masonry Vaulting from Spain to America," by George R. Collins, Journal of the 
Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 27, No. 3, pages 176-201, October 1968, illus., plan. 

"The Principles of Dome Construction," by William Dunn, Architectural Review , Vol. 23, pages 63-73, 
Jan. 1908, pages 108-112, Feb. 1908, illus., plan. 



Selected Skills— Historic Building Systems-Structures -- page 16 



"A Comparative Historical Study of Timber Building in Canada," by A.J.H. Richardson, APT Bulletin, 
Vol. V, No. 3, 1973, pages 77-102. 

"A Selected Annotated Bibliography for the Study of Newfoundland Vertical-Log Structures with Some 
Comments on Terminology," by Shane O'Dea, APT Bulletin, Vol. XIII, No. 1, 1981, pages 35-37. 

"Boulderberg: A Neo-Gothic House of Poured Concrete," by Theodore H. M. Prudon, APT Bulletin, 
Vol. V, No. 4, 1973, pages 28-39. 

"Notes on the History of Hollow Masonry Walls," by T. Ritchie, APT Bulletin, Vol. V, No. k, 1973, 
pages 40-49. 

"Stone Pre-Fab in Quebec City in the Middle of the Eighteenth Century," by A.J.H. Richardson, APT 
Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 4, 1973, pages 73-75. 

"Sod Houses in Nebraska," by Tim Turner, APT Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 4, 1975, page 20. 

"Plywood Reinforcement for Structural Wood Members with Internal Defects," by T. Szabo, APT 
Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 1, 1977, pages 11-15. 

"Inventing the I-Beam: Richard Turner, Cooper and Hewitt and others," by Charles E. Peterson, APT 
Bulletin, Vol. XII, No. 4, 1980, pages 3-28. 

"The Town Lattice Truss in Building Construction," by Harvie P. Jones, APT Bulletin, Vol. XV, No. 3, 
1983, pages 39-41. 

"..To Strengthen the Girder.." by Robert DeSilets, APT Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 1, 1973, pages 50-57. 

Early Connecticut Meetinghouses by J. Frederick Kelly, 2 Vol., pages xli-xliv, and page xlviii, also has 
sketches of 82 roof trusses. 

Building in Wood in the Eastern United States by Henry Glassie and Fred Kniffen, American 
Geographical Society, New York: 1966. (Excerpt from Geographical Review, Vol. 56, No. 1, 1966, 
pages 40-66.) 

"In Delorme's Manner...", by Douglas Harnsberger, APT Bulletin, Vol. XIII, No. 4, 1981, page 3. (On the 
use of X-ray.) 



Selected Skills—Historic Building Systems-Structures — page 17 



Historic Building Systems — Wall Cladding 

Knowledge about historic exterior wall surfaces and materials including various forms of wooden 
siding, clapboards, shingles, shakes, board and batten systems, metal sheeting. Knowledge of the 
various craft practices used to fabricate and/or install these materials in various times and locales 
ranging from hand-splitting to machine made, from hand attached in various ways to fairly 
sophisticated attaching techniques. Knowledge about the craftsmanship and materials used to make 
historic walls to be able to repair, piece out, or replace damaged or deteriorated siding materials; to 
be able to estimate the damage to such covered materials as a result of energy retrofitting of frame 
walls or the introduction of high humidity in the building system. 



Basic Level 

—Knowledge of the general 
evolution, manufacturing and 
application of wall cladding 
systems such as board and batten 
systems. 

—Knowledge of the use of 
substitute materials to imitate 
other materials, such as metal 
sheeting to look like brick, 
asphaltic materials, shingles, 
corrugated iron. 
—Knowledge about curtain wall 
composite materials like 
architectural concrete, metal 
panels systems, panels with 
ceramic facing, masonry veneers 
on wooden framing systems. 



Advanced Level 

—Knowledge of the "oddball" 
cladding, or of temporary 
cladding materials like tar 
paper, grasses and barks, for 
example the Thomas Edison 
Black Moriah. 

—Knowledge of the surface 
textures of cladding materials; 
the manufacturing and profile 
differences as they define 
periods, e.g. German siding, 
pebble dash on precast panels. 
—Knowledge about curtain wall 
materials such as cast iron. 
—Knowledge of sources of 
replacement or replicative parts. 
—Ability to repair and replicate 
cladding materials. 



Master Level 

—Knowledge of sources of 
manufacturing materials. 
—Knowledge of anomalies of 
place and period. 



Selected Bibliography: 

Metals in America's Historic Buildings by Margot Gayle, David W. Look, John G. Waite, 
Washington, D.C. 1980. 

Architectural Elements, The Technological Revolution Edited by Diana S. Waite, Princeton, 1973. 

Building with Wood by John I. Rempel, Toronto: 1967. 

The Grand Era of Cast-iron Architecture in Portland by William John Hawkins III, Portland, Oregon: 
1976. 

The 1905 Catalogue of Iron Store Fronts Designed and Manufactured by Geo. L. Mesker & Co., 
Architectural Iron Works, Evansville, Indiana reprinted in APT Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 4, [977, 
pages 3-40. 

"Cast Iron In American Architecture: A Synoptic View" by Antoinette J. Lee, The Technology of 
Historic American Buildings edited by H. Ward Jandl, Washington , D.C. 1983. 

Building Construction and Superintendence by F.E. Kidder, rev. and enlarged by Thomas Nolan, Part II 
Carpenters' Work, 9th edition rev., New York: 1915. pages 299-304. 

"Prefabs in the California Gold Rush, 1849," by Charles E. Peterson, Society of Architectural 
Historians Journal, Vol. 24, No. 4, pages 318-324, Dec. 1965, illus., plan. 



Selected Skills— Historic Building Systems-Wall Cladding — page 18 



"Pioneer Prefabrication in Honolulu," by Charles E. Peterson, AIA Journal, Sept. 1973, page 42. 

Vol. 31, International Library of Technology by the International Textbook Company covers Stair 
Building, Ornamental Ironwork, Roofing, Sheet-Metal Work, Building Superintendence, Contracts and 
Permits; the section on Sheet-Metal Work is particularly relevant; New York: 1903. 

Pioneers of Prefabrication: The British Contribution in the Nineteenth Century by Gilbert Herbert, 
Baltimore: 1978. (Book Review in APT Bulletin, Vol. XII, No. 2, 1980, pages 133-134.) 

"The Molded Brick Cornice in the Valley of Virginia," by Pamela H. Simpson, APT Bulletin, Vol. XII, 
No. 4, 1980, pages 29-33. 

Conservation of Historic Buildings, by Bernard M. Feilden, London: 1982. 



Selected Skills—Historic Building Systems-Wall Cladding — page 19 



Historic Building Systems— Roofs 

Knowledge about historic roof covering materials such as ceramic tile, slate, thatch, composition, 
boarding, and wooden shingling in a wide range of materials and craftsmanship (split, side-lapped, 
sawn, shaped, face-nailed, etc.). Knowledge about shingling practices at ridges, hips, valleys, chimneys 
and dormers. Knowledge about the great variety of metal roofing materials such as tin, copper, lead, 
iron and zinc. Knowledge about historic flat roofing systems with built in rain water disposal. 
Knowledge about historic flashing and contemporary flashing details to be able to solve problems 
around dormers, vents, skylights, chimneys, turrets, and other complex roof features. 



Basic Level 



Advanced Level 



Master Level 



—Evolution and development of 
roofing systems such as wood, 
metal and slate. 
—Knowledge about all the basic 
wood shingling materials like red 
cedar, white cedar, oak, cypress, 
locust, chestnut, white pine. 
Knowledge about regional 
preferences and availability; 
about practices by which 
shingles were made ranging from 
handcraft to machinemade. 
—Fastening systems for roofs 
the method of hanging and 
nailing slate, method of 
fabricating, clipping and 
fastening metals, flat seams, and 
standing seams. 

—Sheathing systems such as solid 
sheathing, roof lath or roofers, 
beveled sheathing. 
—Knowledge of tin, copper, lead, 
zinc, and iron used as roofing 
materials. 

—Knowledge about the use of 
flashing, and the materials used 
in flashing including cant strips 
for intersections at bulks, party 
walls, dormers. 
—Knowledge about built-in 
downspouts and other water 
disposal systems. 



— Knowledge about built in pole 
gutters, drainage and the 
intersection and edge systems 
including valleys, hips, gables, 
ridges. 

—Roofs made of composition 
materials like asphalt and 
asbestos. 

—Knowledge of rainwater 
collection and disposal systems 
like rain conductor heads. 
—Sheet metal pantile material, 
embossed sheet metal and em- 
bossed tin to imitate wood or 
tile. 

—Knowledge about the use of 
tiles, such as Pennsylvania 
German tile roofs with hooks, 
Spanish tile roofs, Dutch tile 
roofs in New York. 
—Knowledge about fastening and 
materials and flashing details 
and systems, lead flashing over 
frontispiece pediments. 
—Board roofs both vertical and 
parallel, split out of wood and 
cut out of wood. 
—Knowledge of wood shingling 
beyond an individual region; 
knowledge about the broad 
differences that took place over 
a period of time — differences in 
flashing details, starting courses, 
ridges, eaves, valleys, and 
nailing practices. 
—Practices using interlayers e.g. 
papers, tar felts, canvas, 
interlayers in metal roofs. 
—Knowledge of the practices in 
using tin, copper, lead, zinc, and 
iron, such as herringbone tin 
roofing practices. 



—New research on uses of 
roofing materials and craft 
practices in regions. 
—Awareness of fabric in built up 
roofs e.g. canvas and tar in 
1850's. 

—Temporary materials such as 
thatching and bark and the 
history of built up roofs, sod 
roofs. 

—Roofing coatings including tar, 
paint, red iron oxide, linseed oil 
and brick dust, sanded paints, 
creosote. 

—Unusual systems that did not 
endure such as the herringbone 
metal shingles. Practices that 
were identified with areas or 
ethnic groups that did not 
prevail for any length of time. 
—Knowledge of ethnic or 
national practices that may be 
followed in the United States in 
limited areas, such as French 
roofing systems, Ludovici 
Interlocking Spanish Tile roofs in 
the 1920's, roofs of the 
Southwest. 

—Knowledge of roofing's special 
shapes such as steeples, cupolas, 
towers, and domes. 
—Knowledge of special finishes 
such as gilding, glazed tiles, 
ceramic metals. 



Selected Skills—Historic Building Systems-Roofs — page 20 



Advanced continued 

—Roof appendages such as 
hatches, roof ladders, roof 
decks, lightning rods, snow 
guards of bent wire and cast 
iron. 

—Knowledge of roof cresting 
both in sheet metal and cast 
metal under the snow guards. 
Knowledge of roof balustrades 
and their connections and 
flashing. Knowledge of unusual 
penetrations and connections and 
the additions of later mechanical 
equipment. Knowledge of 
skylights and flashing problems. 
—Roofing for special kinds of 
buildings like lighthouses and 
churches. 

— Knowledge of built up and 
composition roofs used from the 
late 1860's including canvas 
roofs and canvas walking decks. 
— Concrete and other materials 
used as a substrate for 
composition roofs. 
—Knowledge about stone roofs 
such as Grants Tomb, Federal 
Hall, Jefferson Memorial. 

Selected Bibliography: 

"Terra Cotta: Rehabilitation of a Courthouse Dome," by A. Richard Glance, APT Bulletin, Vol. XVII, 
No. 1, 1985, pages 38-45. 

"Bibliography for Slate Roofing," compiled by Ms. Gouhar Shemdin, APT Newsletter, Vol. IV, No. II, 
April 1975, pages 8-9. 

Sections on "Roofing" and "Sheet-Metal Work," Vol. Ill of A Treatise on Architecture and Building 
Construction International Correspondence Schools, Scranton, Pennsylvania: 1899. 

"The Work of Benjamin Franklin on Thunderstorms and the Development of the Lightning Rod," by 
B.F.J. Schonland, pages 375-392; "Prejudice Against the Introduction of Lightning Rods," by I. Bernard 
Cohen, pages 393-440; "Lightning Protection Since Franklin's Day," by K.B. McEachron, pages 471-504; 
in Journal of the Franklin Institute, Vol. 253, No. 5, May 1952. 

"Polychromatic Roofing Slate of Vermont and New York," by Philip C. Marshall, APT Bulletin, Vol. XI, 
No. 3, 1979, pages 77-87. 

"A Preliminary Study of 'English' Roofs in Colonial America," by D.T. Yeomans, APT Bulletin, 
Vol. XIII, No. 4, 1981, pages 9-18. 

"Early Roofing Materials," APT Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 1/2, 1970, pages 18-87. 

Architectural Graphic Standards by Charles George Ramsey and Harold Reeve Sleeper, New York and 
London, first edition 1932, second edition 1936, third edition 1941. 



Selected Skills— Historic Building Systems-Roofs — page 21 



International Library of Technology Vol. 31 covers Stair Building, Ornamental Ironwork, Roofing, 
Sheet-Metal Work, Building Superintendence, Contracts and Permits, by International Textbook 
Company, New York: 1903. "Memoranda on Roofing," pages 1994-2020. 

Nineteenth Century Tin Roofing and Its Use at Hyde Hall by Diana S. Waite, Albany: 1971. 

"Roofing for Early America," by Diana S. Waite in Building Early America, Radnor, Pennsylvania: 1976. 

The Framed Houses of Massachusetts Bay, 1625-1725 by Abbott Lowell Cummings, Cambridge, Mass.: 
1979 

Building Construction and Superintendence by F.E. Kidder, rev. and enlarged by Thomas Nolan, Part II 
Carpenters' Work, 9th edition rev., New York: 1915. pages 143-161, 250-299, 315-357. 

"Item on Roofing in Nineteenth Century" contributed by Philip Shackelton, APT Bulletin, Vol. VI, 
No. 3, 1974, pages 148-149. 

"Wooden Forts of the Early Northwest: Fort William," by Joan Halloran, APT Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 2, 
1974, pages 39-81. 

"Board Roofing in Tidewater Virginia," by Dell Upton, APT Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 4, 1976, pages 22-43. 

"A Further Note on French-Canadian Roof-Cover and Timber Walls," by A.J.H. Richardson, APT 
Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 1, 1976, pages 61-69. 

"Notes on Thatch and Sod Roofing," by Martin E. Weaver, APT Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 1, 1976, 
pages 70-71. 

"Sod Houses in Nebraska," by Tim Turner, APT Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 4, 1975, pages 20-37. 

"A Surviving Eighteenth Century Copper Roof," by Sarah Sweetser, APT Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 2, 1977, 
pages 10-15. 

"Roof Thatching Methods in Crockett County, Texas," by Andrea Holman, APT Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 2, 
1977, pages 16-31. 

Conservation of Historic Buildings, by Bernard M. Feilden, London: 1982. 

"Establishing a Platform. ..Strategic Maneuvers for Restoration Work," Technology and Conservation , 
Vol. 7, No. 1, Spring 1982, pages 5-8. (Re scaffolding for a dome.) 

"Iron in Early American Roofs," by Charles E. Peterson, Smithsonian Journal of History, Vol. 3, No. 4, 
Fall 1968, pages 41-76. 

On the Construction of Iron Roofs by Francis Campin, New York: 1868. 

The Houses of French St. Louis by Charles E. Peterson, reprinted from The French in the Mississippi 
Valley edited by John Francis McDermott, Urbana, IL: 1965. 



Selected Skills— Historic Building Systems-Roofs — page 22 



Historic Building Systems — Windows 

Knowledge about historic window systems: single hung, double hung, and casement systems with sash, 
frames, weights and/or associated hardware. Knowledge about the evolution of muntin profiles. 
Knowledge about historic glass types, such as crown glass, broad glass; their physical characteristics, 
thickness, color and visual qualities due to their manufacturing processes; later glass products, such as 
plate glass, beveled glass, etched glass, decorative glass, stained glass, modern glass, structural glass, 
glass block. Knowledge about metal sash systems and their historical development. 



Basic Level 

—General knowledge of all the 
basic historic window systems 
including 17th century wood and 
metal casement windows, 
wooden single hung and double 
hung window systems from 1700 
to the present, with all their 
variants for residential, 
commercial and public buildings. 
—Knowledge of basic glass types 
in historic American buildings 
including crown, broad, and 
plate. 

—Ability to identify the glass 
types by their physical 
characteristics to use that as a 
dating tool and to help discern 
the physical evolution of the 
building to assure the 
preservation of early glass. 



Advanced Level 

—Knowledge of glass types such 
as beveled plate art glass, leaded 
art glass, wire glass, structural 
glass, glass block, prism glass 
and etched glass. Knowledge of 
theatrically antique reproduction 
glass and understanding of its 
inappropriateness for use in 
historic structures. 
—Ability to identify glass that 
has been affected by chemical 
attack to be able to identify 
problems and seek qualified 
conservation assistance. 
—Knowledge of metal sash 
systems both the industrial types 
commonly used in commercial 
and warehouse buldings as well 
as the more architecturally 
distinctive metal sash used in 
elegant domestic buildings, Art 
Moderne, and public buildings of 
the early 20th century. 
—Knowledge of lead earning and 
associated hardware such as the 
hinges, latches, and 
reinforcement bars or wood 
muntins to be able to sort out 
the different periods. 
—Ability to specify various types 
of glass regarding the needed 
optical quality for use in historic 
buildings and regarding the life 
and safety code requirements for 
use in historic storefronts. 



Master Level 

—Expert on the subtle variations 
of early casement window 
systems, especially the regional 
uses. 

—Identification of lead glazing 
strips for casement windows by 
their glaziers marks. 
—Knowledge about false 
windows. 



Selected Bibliography: 

Glass in Architecture and Decoration by Raymond McGrath, London, 1937. 

Glass, Paints, Varnishes, and Brushes by Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company, Pittsburgh, PA: 1923. 

The Restoration Manual by Orin M. Bullock, Norwalk, Connecticut: 1966, page 77 on muntin profiles. 



Selected Skills— Historic Building Systems-Windows — page 23 



"Preservation Briefs: 9, The Repair of Historic Wooden Windows," by John H. Myers, 
Washington, D.C.: 1981. 

"Preservation Briefs: 13, The Repair and Thermal Upgrading of Historic Steel Windows," by 
Sharon C. Park, AIA, Washington, D.C.: 1984. 

"Fixing Double-Hung Windows," Old House Journal, No. 12, 1979, page 135. 

"Sealing Leaky Windows," Old House Journal , No. 1, 1973, page 5. 

Hope's Leadwork by Henry Hope, New York, 1917. 

ASHRAE Handbook - 1977 Fundamentals American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and 
Airconditioning Engineers, New York: 1978. 

A Metal Window Dictionary by W.F. Crittal, London: 1926; reprinted by B.T. Batsford, Ltd., 1953. 

Metals in America's Historic Buildings by Margot Gayle, David W. Look, John G. Waite, 
Washington, D.C.: 1980. 

"Selecting and Specifying an Appropriate Type of Steel Window," by R.H. Sarton, Metalcraft, Vol. 6, 
No. 1, January 1931: pages 43-48, 64-65. 

1910 Handy Pocket Size Edition Illustrated Catalogue Containing Our Complete Line of Crown and 
Front Doors Cottage Windows Art Glass Porch and Stair Work Material and All Specialties Also the 
Official Price List on Sash, Doors, and Blinds as Adopted Jan. 24, 1908 by the Whole Sale Sash, Door 
and Blind Manufacturers' Association of the Northwest and the New Revised Universal Moulding List as 
Adopted Oct. 14, 1908 by Rock Island Sash and Door Works, Rock Island, Illinois: 1910 edition. 
Illustrated Catalog No. 120. 

Building Construction and Superintendence by F.E. Kidder, rev. and enlarged by Thomas Nolan, Part II 
Carpenters' Work, 9th edition rev., New York: 1915. Pages 169-220, 229-238, 410-431, 627-654 

A Guide to Artifacts of Colonial America by Ivor Noel Hume. Pages 233-235 on broad and crown glass. 

"Window Glass in America," by Kenneth M. Wilson, in Building Early America, edited by Charles E. 
Peterson, Radnor, Pennsylvania: 1976. 

"Monongahela and Pittsburgh District Glass: 19th Century," by Ronald L. Michael and Ronald C. 
Carlisle, APT Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 1, 1975, pages 57-85. 

"The Incidence of False Windows in Two Early Newfoundland Lighthouses," by R.M. Peck, APT 
Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 1, 1977, pages 4-10. 

"A Short Note on an Early Sash Window Found at East Hampton, Long Island," by Martin E. Weaver, 
APT Bulletin, Vol. X, No. 1, 1978, pages 54-62. 

"18th Century Black Window Glazing in Philadelphia," by Frank S. Welsh, APT Bulletin, Vol. XII, No. 2, 
1980, pages 122-123. 

APT Bulletin, Vol. XIII, No. 3, 1981, the entire issue is on "Architectural Glass: History and 
Conservation." 

"Documentation of Stained Glass Window Restoration," by Julie L. Sloan, APT Bulletin, Vol. XV, No. 1, 
1983, pages 12-19. 

"A Technical History of Late Nineteenth Century Windows in the United States," by Susan Swiatosz, 
APT Bulletin, Vol. XVII, No. 1, 1985, pages 31-37. 

"A Fitting Solution ...for On-Site Window Restoration," Technology and Conservation, Vol. 8, No. 3, 
Fall 1983, pages 5-8. 

"Reconstruction of the Lockwood-Mathews Mansion Museum Conservatory," by Richard Bergmann, 
APT Bulletin, Vol. XIV, No. 3, 1982, pages 2-6. 

Selected Skills—Historic Building Systems-Windows — page 24 



Historic Building Systems — Flooring 

Knowledge about historic flooring materials and floor coverings from the whole spectrum of early 
wooden flooring: pegged, face-nailed, blind-nailed, butt joints, tongue and groove, random widths, 
matched widths. Knowledge about the hierarchy of floor treatments relative to the social importance 
of the space. Knowledge about historic floor finishes, early flooring maintenance practices, knowledge 
about later hardwood flooring, parquet and decorative flooring. Knowledge about historic tile, marble, 
and other stone and/or brick flooring. Knowledge about historic floor coverings such as carpets, 
painted floor cloths, linoleum. 



Basic Level 

—Knowledge of brick flooring 
and pavements in their variety 
of patterns, e.g. basketweave. 
--Knowledge of stone floors such 
as slate and plain marble and 
patterned marble. 
—Knowledge about floor finishes 
such as paints, varnishes, 
decorative painting. 
— Knowledge about baseboards 
and painting practices. 
—Knowledge of the 
manufacturing of flooring (all 
materials) ranging from 
handcrafts to the machine made 
to aid in dating and to aid in 
specifying replacement 
materials for example, for wood, 
pit sawn, sash sawn, circular 
sawn; hand planing and machine 
planing the exposed surfaces and 
hand work vs. machine work for 
tongue and grooving. 



Advanced Level 

—Knowledge of glass prisms for 
flooring and sidewalks. 
Knowledge of Minton's tiles for 
floors and pavements. 
—Knowledge of mosaic and 
terrazo, floor cloths, linoleum, 
asphalt tile, sheet cork, cork 
tile, parquet floors, earth floors. 
—Knowledge about concrete 
floors. Knowledge about 
subfloors, sound-deadening 
materials such as felt or quilt, 
and subflooring systems. 
—Knowledge and familiarity 
with species of woods used for 
flooring regionally and 
ethnically; knowledge about the 
fastening techniques for 
attaching these woods. 
—Knowledge of the qualities of 
woods used for flooring to be 
able to specify for repair or 
replacement, e.g. riff grain or 
quarter sawn. 
—Knowledge about the 
development of hardwood 
flooring industry. 
—Knowledge about wedging and 
relieving floor boards. 



Master Level 

—Knowledge of mud floors and 
dirt floors and the regional and 
other differences between the 
two. 

—Knowledge of history and 
development of grading rules. 
— Knowledge of laying and 
nailing of flooring including 
variations of nailing practices, 
tongue and grooved, end- 
matched grains to help prevent 
squeaking, vertically pegged and 
horizontally pegged. 
—Knowledge about special kinds 
of flooring such as bowled floors, 
or gallery floors for theatres or 
churches. 

—Ability to work with 
manufacturers to replicate 
historic flooring materials or 
lost craft or manufacturing 
techniques. 



Selected Bibliography: 

Building Construction and Superintendence by F.E. Kidder, rev. and enlarged by Thomas Nolan, Part II 
Carpenters' Work, 9th edition rev., New York: 1915. pages 103-131, 340-363, 668-682, 70^-702,. 

Ancient Carpenters' Tools by Henry Chapman Mercer, 3rd edition, Doylestown, PA: 1960. 

The Architecture of Country Houses by A. 3. Downing, New York: several editions from 1850 to 1866; 
reprinted New York: 1968, 1969. 

"A Brief History of Mosaic Floors and Terrazzo Work," The Art of Mosaics and Terrazzo, (magazine), 
February and March 1931, Vol. II, No. 2, and Vol. II, No. 3. 

Modern Mosaic and Terrazzo Floor by L. Del Tusco and Bros., Inc. Harrison, New York: 1924. 



Selected Skills— Historic Building Systems-Flooring — page 25 



The Rules of Work of the Carpenters' Company of the City and County of Philadelphia 1786 
pages 10-11, reprinted Princeton, NJ: 1971. 

"'Sand-Board' Usage Under Floor of an Early House in Tuckerton, New Jersey," by Henry O. Tuslin, 
APT Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 1, 1973, pages 102-103. 

"Nineteenth Century Architectural Insulation: Zoar, Ohio," by 3.M. Gaynor, APT Bulletin, Vol. VIII, 
No. 4, 1976, page 100-112. 

"Deafening: An Early Form of Sound Insulation," by Theodore H.M. Prudon, APT Bulletin, Vol. VII, 
No. 4, 1975, pages 5-13. 



Selected Skills— Historic Building Systems-Flooring — page 26 



Analysis and Treatments— Wood 

Knowledge about evaluating the whole range of wood preservation problems including poor original 
materials, poor original workmanship, damage due to neglect, overstress, high humidity and moisture 
problems, insect attack, deterioration of joints and connecting devices, embrittlement. Knowledge 
about techniques for treating and stabilizing dry rot in historic wood including understanding the 
mechanisms of fungal decay to be able to identify in the early stages the several types of fungal decay 
and how to treat. Knowledge about the various fungicides, their appropriateness and their hazards. 
Knowledge about dealing with insect infestations and damage. 

Knowledge about the structural repair and reinforcement of historic wood and knowledge about wood 
epoxy reinforcement (WER) systems. Knowledge about various physical and chemical repairs, 
reinforcement, treatments such as piecing out with new materials in kind, splicing with dissimilar 
materials. Knowledge about the various systems for wood epoxy reinforcement, including knowledge 
about how to formulate appropriate epoxy consolidants with an understanding of the various kinds of 
resins, curing agents and extenders and methods of application of stabilizers alone or in combination 
with wood patching to assure workability for decorative members and fragile parts such as window 
muntins that such consolidation, repair and patching methodologies should respect the original 
materials in terms of strength, expansion and contraction and visual characteristics. 

Knowledge about general woodworking and millwork practices such as the appropriate use of other 
woods and substitute materials where original species or other qualities of the wood are no longer 
available. Knowledge about the appropriateness of hand tools vs. machine tools including sanding, back 
priming, the effects of various chemical treatments including fire retardant chemicals. Knowledge 
about how to reproduce historic wooden moldings. 



Basic Level 

--Knowledge about the processes 
of deterioration, knowledge 
about insect attack of wood and 
the more common insects in the 
region. 

--Recognizing simple problems 
of poor detailing and poor 
materials. 

--Ability to select wood for 
species, density and cut. 
—Ability to inspect both wood 
and workmanship in new 
construction. 

—Knowledge about modern 
woods as substitutes for historic 
woods where texture and grain 
are not important. Knowledge 
about the durability of modern 
woods for interior or exterior 
uses, for example, 
inappropriateness of using 
Western white woods for window 
sash. 

—Understanding of basic grading 
rules, for example, hemlock and 
pine are often graded the same 
yet they perform very 
differently. 



Advanced Level 

—Knowledge of ultraviolet 
degradation of wood. 
—Ability to specify and carry 
out the reinforcement of 
structural systems by "sharing" a 
load with system members or 
posts. Knowledge of the use of 
shearpins to transfer loads. 
—Understanding the use of 
epoxies for structural 
reinforcement. 

— Knowledge about the problems 
with historic treatments such as 
the use of mercury as a wood 
preservative and the health 
hazards of working with such 
wood. 

—Ability to specify and 
supervise the usage of fire 
retardants. Ability to inspect 
wood that has been delivered to 
determine if the specified 
retardant was in fact applied. 
—Ability to supervise millworker 
or day labor force in how 
moldings are made, how blades 
are ground, etc. 



Master Level 

--Ability to use epoxies intell- 
igently, ability to formulate 
them, ability to specify their 
use, ability to supervise their 
application and use. 
— Ability to make your own 
molding planes. 
—Expanded knowledge of the 
process beyond regional 
practices for example, 
knowledge about the effect of 
ultraviolet light at high 
elevations or knowledge about 
unusual insects and their 
infestation of wood. 
—Knowledge about the joining of 
dissimilar materials. 
—Knowledge about the problems 
associated with the pressure 
treatment of heavy timbers such 
as 12" x 12". 

—Ability to apply wood gas 
injection systems. 
—Ability to recognize poor 
conditions for wood and ability 
to evaluate whether the impact 
will be serious and immediate or 
may be deferred. 



Selected Skills— Analysis and Treatments-Wood — page 27 



Basic Level continued 



Advanced Level continued 



—Knowledge about fungal decay and 
dry rot, for example if wood is above 
20% moisture content it is susceptible 
to dry rot, fungal decay and insect 
infestation. 

—Basic understanding of reinforcing 
structural systems by "sharing" a load 
with system members or posts. 
—Knowledge about how to improve 
the geometry by enlarging the bearing 
plate or by enlarging the footing. 
—Knowledge about all the options for 
improving the structural systems such 
as by "sharing" or spreading the load 
or changing the geometry. 
—Knowledge about chemical 
treatments and basic chemical 
preservatives and the pros and cons of 
the use of different fire retardants. 
—Full knowledge about Integrated 
Pest Management Systems including 
the health hazards associated with the 
pest control techniques. 
—Ability to distinguish between wood 
that has been worked with machine 
tools and that worked with hand tools. 
—Knowledge about the replication of 
historic wooden moldings to be aware 
that the manufacturing process has 
changed, that going from a sketched 
profile to a finishing molding is not a 
simple process, to know how it is 
accomplished whether by hand or 
machine, to be able to write 
specifications for moldings. 
—Knowledge about wood repair and 
replacement, such as replacing rafter 
tips either with splicing, in kind or 
with a substitute material. 
Knowledge about the wrong way to 
address the problem, that is, 
"chainsaw maintenance" of rafter tips, 
to be able to specify the correct 
methods in work orders. 
—Knowledge about the methods, 
materials and practices of using 
paints, like back priming of wood; 
varnishes and coatings like water 
repellent coatings on bare wood or 
water repellent coatings prior to 
painting. 



—Understanding the 
fumigation process and the 
associated hazards, for 
example such practices are 
standard in the South and in 
Hawaii. 

—Knowledge about the 
fumigation of wood 
preservation systems such as 
the use of wood gas injection 
systems. 

--Knowledge about the 
different types of log 
buildings; knowledge about 
the difference between 
daubing and chinking. 
—Ability to specify and apply 
substitute materials such as 
metal or fiberglass in place of 
wood cornices when 
appropriate. 
—Knowledge about non- 
destructive fabric 
investigation techniques such 
as the use of a broom to 
sweep out the structure, the 
use of raking light, the use of 
wiping the surface of wood 
floors with water, the use of 
infrared light and infrared 
photography, the use of X-ray 
photographs, the use of 
cameras with fiber optic 
lights and lenses. 
—General knowledge about 
the usefulness and 
appropriateness of such non- 
destructive testing options as 
acoustic emission sensors, 
electrical potential 
measurements, endoscope, 
gamma radiography, moisture 
meter devices, penetration 
probes, ultrasonics etc. 



Selected Skills— Analysis and Treatments-Wood — page 28 



Selected Bibliography: 

Epoxies for Wood Repairs in Historic Buildings by Morgan W. Phillips and Judith E. Selwyn, 
Washington, D.C.: 1978. 

Architectural Woodwork Quality Standards by Architectural Woodwork Institute, Arlington, Virginia. 

"The Role of Fumigants in Log Preservation," by Robert D. Graham, APT Bulletin , Vol. XV, No. 1, 
1983, pages 20-21. 

"The Preservation of Logs and Heavy Timbers in Historic Buildings by Using Volatile Chemicals," by 
Alfred M. Staehli, APT Bulletin , Vol. XV, No. 1, 1983, pages 22-26. 

W.E.R. — System Manual Structural Rehabilitation of Deteriorated Timber by Paul Stumes, Ottawa, 
Canada: 1979. 

"The Effect of Ageing on the Mechanical Properties of Eastern White Pine," by G. Attar-Hassan, APT 
Bulletin , Vol. VIII, No. 3, 1976, pages 64-73. 

"Testing the Efficiency of Wood Epoxy Reinforcement Systems," by Paul Stumes, APT Bulletin, 
Vol. VII, No. 3, 1975, pages 2-35. 

"A Correction for the Article: Testing the Efficiency of Wood Epoxy Reinforcement Systems," APT 
Bulletin , Vol. VIII, No. 3, 1976, pages 1-2. 

Conservation of Wooden Objects published by International Institute for Conservation of Historic and 
Artistic Works (IIC), second edition, Vol. 2, London: 1971. 

"Wooden Structural Members: Some Recent European Preservation Methods," by Theodore H. M. 
Prudon, APT Bulletin , Vol. VII, No. 1, 1975, pages 4-11. 

Guide to Wood Species Selection, Including Sawing Methods, Treatment and Finishing by Architectural 
Woodwork Institute, Arlington, Virginia: 1968. 

Quality Standards of the Architectural Woodwork Industry by Architectural Woodwork Institute, 
Chicago, 1961; Nashville, Tennessee, 1963. 

"Plywood Reinforcement for Structural Wood Members with Internal Defects," by T. Szabo, APT 
Bulletin , Vol. IX, No. 1, 1977, pages 11-15. 

"In-Situ Injection of Wood Preservatives," by Theodore H. M. Prudon, APT Bulletin, Vol. XI, No. 1, 
1979, pages 75-80. 

American Institute of Timber Construction Source Materials by American Institute of Timber 
Construction, Washington, D.C.: 1960. 

Timber Construction Manual by American Institute of Timber Construction, New York, 1966, 1974. 

Wood Structures by American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, 1975. 

Wood and Its Uses by P.B. Eassie, Gloucester, 1874. 

Architecture in Wood by Hans Jurgen Hansen, New York, 1971. 

Timber Engineers' Handbook edited by Howard James Hansen, New York, 1948. 

Strength of Beams, Floors and Roofs by Frank Eugene Kidder, New York 1905. 

"Simple Remedial Treatment of Deteriorated Wood in Heritage Homes," by T. Szabo and J.K. Shields, 
APT Bulletin , Vol. XI, No. 2, 1979, pages 17-22. 

"X-Ray Investigation of Buildings," by David M. Hart, APT Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 1, 1973, pages 9-21. 

"X-Ray Analysis of the Narbonne House," by David M. Hart, APT Bulletin , Vol. VI, No. 1, 1974, 
pages 78-98. 



Selected Skills— Analysis and Treatments-Wood — page 29 



"Nondestructive Testing for Heritage Structures," by Susan Hum-Hartley, APT Bulletin, Vol. X, No. 3, 
1978, pages <f-20. 

Nondestructive Testing Handbook edited by Robert C. McMaster, New York, 1973(?) 

"Scaled-Rectified Photography on Site," by William B. Hockey, APT Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 3, 1975, 
pages 37-78. 

"The Use of a Technical Model as a Design Control Aid," by Richard Fairweather, APT Bulletin, 
Vol. IX, No. 1, 1977, pages 22-29. 

"Structural Conservation of the Buildings of Old Fort William, Thunder Bay, Ontario," by Martin E. 
Weaver, APT Bulletin, Vol. X, No. 3, 1978, page 21-32. 



Selected Skills—Analysis and Treatments-Wood -- page 30 



Analysis and Treatments — Masonry 

Knowledge about various preservation treatments for historic brick and stone masonry to deal with 
such problems as spalling, graffiti, crumbling, moisture movement such as rising damp, efflorescence, 
staining, cracking and detachment. Such treatments range from partial replacement, plastic repair, 
mechanical attachment devices, chemical consolidation, coatings, damp proofing methodologies and 
poulticing. Knowledge about monitoring moisture both externally and internally within building 
materials and within wall systems, analyzing the effects of dissolved salts, sulfates, and nitrates as a 
result of moisture migration; diagnosing maintenance practices that are contributing to materials or 
systems deterioration; identifying inherent weaknesses in materials and systems; identifying natural 
agents of deterioration; identifying built-in design flaws, human changes, alterations, or interventions 
that are contributing to materials and systems deterioration. 



Basic Level 

—Broad understanding of the 
process of deterioration. 
Knowledge about the process of 
such problems as moisture, rising 
damp, efflorescence and 
subflorescence; knowledge about 
the problems of inappropriate 
preservation treatments such as 
coatings or too hard pointing. 
—Ability to explore options for 
stone repair including the use of 
substitute materials when 
acceptable. 

—Knowledge about stone 
deterioration to be able to 
determine when the "illness" is 
"terminal", as in powdery brick 
or delaminating sandstone. 
—Ability to write specifications 
for brick or stone so that it will 
have similar characteristics to 
the original material. 
—Ability to diagnose the whole 
range of masonry problems. 
—Knowledge about graffiti 
removal. 

—General knowledge about 
anchoring systems. 
—General knowledge about 
chemical consolidation. 
—General knowledge about 
dampproofing methods and the 
use of chemical injections 
including the pros and cons of 
each. 

—Knowledge about the process 
of deterioration and the basic 
repair of concrete. (Note: 
Treatment of Concrete will be 
addressed in a future expansion 
of these Selected Skills.) 



Advanced Level 

—Knowledge about the 
chemistry of stone as a building 
material. 

— Knowledge about where to find 
replacement brick or stone, 
knowledge about closed quarries, 
opening quarries, exploring and 
testing options. 
—Knowledge about individual 
kinds of graffiti on special 
substrate such as on brittle 
surfaces or with soft substrate. 
— Expanded knowledge of 
anchoring systems. Ability to 
diagnose, repair and replace 
anchoring systems. 
—Knowledge about how chemical 
consolidation work is done, 
knowledge about the new 
methods being developed or 
tested such as the use of silane 
or Breathane, knowledge about 
the health and other hazards 
associated with these chemicals. 
—Ability to specify and apply 
dampproofing methods and 
chemical injections. 
—Knowledge about the use of 
substitute materials in lieu of 
masonry; ability to weigh the 
impact of such a substitution on 
the historic character of the 
structure; when determined 
appropriate, ability to specify 
and supervise the usage of such 
materials, as for example the 
use of fiberglass instead of stone 
on the cornice of the San 
Francisco Mint. 



Master Level 

—Ability to try out different 
mortar mixes. 

—Ability to solve both physical 
and aesthetic problems. 
—Ability to deal with the 
aesthetic problems of concrete 
repairs. (Note: Treatments for 
Concrete will be addressed in a 
future Selected Skill.) 
—Knowledge of the problems 
with taping and surface coating 
pointing. Knowledge about the 
pros and cons of other methods. 
—Ability specify and formulate 
repair and replacement of stucco 
and its various attachment 
systems. 



Selected Skills— Analysis and Treatments-Masonry — page 31 



Basic Level continued 



Advanced Level continued 



—Knowledge about the basic 
performance and problems 
associated with the use of 
sealants and caulks. 
— Knowledge about the materials 
and practices of using paints on 
masonry including paint removal 
before repainting. 
—Knowledge about water proof 
coatings and consolidants. 



—Ability to differentiate 
between when and how to use 
sealants and caulks in relation to 
the effect they have on the 
historic materials, their 
effectiveness. 
—Understanding the design 
problems in using sealants in 
terms of the geometry of the 
building. 

—Knowledge about the removal 
of unusual coatings from 
masonry, for example 
cementitious paints. 
—Ability to review and evaluate 
the claims of various paint, 
coating and other product 
manufacturers to be able to 
specify and test the most 
appropriate coating or to be able 
to have it formulated if it is not 
readily available. 
—Knowledge about how to 
specify the coatings, how to 
detail them and how to apply 
them. 

—Knowledge about non- 
destructive fabric investigation 
techniques such as the use of a 
broom to sweep out the 
structure, the use of raking 
light, the use of cameras with 
fiber optic lights and lenses. 
—General knowledge about the 
usefulness and appropriateness 
of such non-destructive testing 
options as acoustic emission 
sensors, electrical potential 
measurements, endoscope, 
gamma radiography, moisture 
meter devices, penetration 
probes, ultrasonics etc. 

Selected Bibliography: 

Conservation of Historic Buildings, by Bernard M. Feilden, London: 1982. 

Stone Decay and Conservation: Atmospheric Pollution, Cleaning, Consolidation and Protecting by 
G. G. Amoroso and V. Fassina, New York: 1983. 

"Bibliography for Conservation of Masonry," compiled by Theodore H.M. Prudon, APT Newsletter, 
Vol. IV, No. II, April 1975, pages 10-12. 



Selected Skills— Analysis and Treatments-Masonry — page 32 



"The Geologist's Role in Stone Preservation and Restoration," by Erhard M Winkler, APT Bulletin, 
Vol. XV, No. 3, 1983, pages 42-43. 

"Installing New Non-Corrosive Anchors in Old Masonry: Some Examples," by Theodore H.M. Prudon, 
APT Bulletin, Vol. XI, No. 3, 1979, pages 61-76. 

Engineering Geology Case Histories Number 11: Decay and Preservation of Stone edited by Erhard M. 
Winkler, Boulder, Colorado: 1977. 

"An Architectural Example of Oxide Jacking," by M. Firth and W.M. Williams, APT Bulletin, Vol. XIII, 
No. 1, 1981, pages 3-6. 

"Composite Stone Repairs at Drayton Hall," by Dean Koysan, APT Bulletin, Vol. XIV, No. 3, 1982, 
pages 36-41. 

APT Bulletin, Vol. XVII, No. 2, 1985, the entire issue is on "Masonry." 

"Rehabilitation Approaches to Severely Deteriorated Brown Sandstones at the Apex Building, 
Washington, D.C.," by Neale Quenzel, APT Bulletin, Vol. XVII, No. 3/4, 1985, pages 65-68. 

"The Decay of Building Stones: A Literature Review," by Erhard M. Winkler, APT Bulletin, Vol. IX, 
No. 4, 1977, pages 52-61. 

Conservation of Stone published by International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic* 
Works (IIC), second edition, London, Vol. 1, 1971. 

"Field Procedures for Examining Humidity in Masonry Buildings," by W. Brown Morton III, APT 
Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 2, 1976, pages 2-19. 

"Letter re Field Procedures., by W. Brown Morton, III, and Later Comment by Louis J. Dugas," by 
Erhard M. Winkler, APT Bulletin, Vol. X, No. 1, 1978, pages 3-5. 

Book Review by David W. Look of "Desalination of Stone: A Case Study," by M.J. Bowley, APT 
Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 2, 1976, pages 78-79. 

"A New Air Pollution Monitor," by Paul Stumes, APT Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 1, 1977, pages 16-21. 

"A Masonry Deterioration Case Study: Holy Trinity Anglican Church, HawKesbury, Ontario," by Martin 
E. Weaver, APT Bulletin, Vol. X, No. 1, 1978, pages 10-19. 

"Stone Preservation, the Earth Scientist's View," by Erhard M. Winkler, APT Bulletin, Vol. X, No. 2, 
1978, pages 118-121. 

"Historic Concrete Preservation Problems at Fort Washington, Maryland," by Gary Scott, APT Bulletin, 
Vol. X, No. 2, 1978, pages 121-132. 

"Injection D'Epoxy Sous Pression," by Francois Leblanc, APT Bulletin, Vol. X, No. 3, 1978, pages 41-58. 

"History, Deterioration, and Repair of Cement and Concrete in Nineteenth Century Fortifications 
Constructed by the Royal Engineers," by Andrew Powter, APT Bulletin, Vol. X, No. 3, 1978, pages 59-77. 

"The Lightness (Reflectance) of Stone in the Stone Industry," by Erhard M. Winkler, APT Bulletin, 
Vol. XI, No. 2, 1979, pages 7-16. 

"Nondestructive Evaluation in Rehabilitation and Preservation of Concrete and Masonry Materials," by 
James R. Clifton, Rehabilitation, Renovation, and Preservation of Concrete and Masonry Structures 
edited by Gajanan Sabnis, American Concrete Institute SP-85, Detroit: 1985. 

"Nondestructive Testing for Heritage Structures," by Susan Hum-Hartley, APT Bulletin, Vol. X, No. 3, 
1978, pages 4-20. 

Nondestructive Testing Handbook edited by Robert C. McMaster, New York, 1973(?) 

"Scaled-Rectified Photography on Site," by William B. Hockey, APT Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 3, 1975, 
pages 37-78. 

Selected Skills—Analysis and Treatments-Masonry — page 33 



"The Use of a Technical Model as a Design Control Aid," by Richard Fairweather, APT Bulletin, 
Vol. IX, No. 1, 1977, pages 22-29. 

"Masonry Conservation: Documenting the Condition and Treatment of Historic Building Materials," by 
Anne E. Grimmer, Technology and Conservation, Vol. 6, No. 2, Summer 1981, pages 32-35. 

"Weathering of the Kansas Capitol Building: A Study of Limestone Deterioration," by David A. 
Grisafe, Technology and Conservation, Vol. 7, No. 1, Spring, 1982, pages 26-31. 

"Decay of Stone Monuments and n uildings: The Role of Acid Rain," by Erhard M. Winkler, Technology 
and Conservation, Vol. 7, No. 1, Spring 1982, pages 32-36. 

"Radiography of Ancient Structures on the Acropolis of Athens: Mapping/Evaluating the Metal Joints 
and Reinforcement of Marble Monuments," by Eric T. Clarke, Technology and Conservation, Vol. 8, 
No. 3, Fall 1983, pages 18-22. 

"Substitute Materials on the Western Reserve Historical Society Building," by Siegfried Buerling, APT 
Bulletin, Vol. XIV, No. 3, 1982, pages 7-11. 

"A Stone Porch Replicated in Wooden Blocks," by Morgan Phillips, APT Bulletin, Vol. XIV, No. 3, 1982, 
pages 12-20. 

"Glass-Reinforced Plastic Facsimiles in Building Restoration," by John A. Fidler, APT Bulletin, 
Vol. XIV, No. 3, 1982, pages 21-25. 

"Composite Stone Repairs at Drayton Hall, A Case Study of Stone Restoration Techniques," by Dean 
Korpan, APT Bulletin, Vol. XIV, No. 3, 1982, pages 36-41. 

Stone Consolidating Materials — A Status Report by James R. Clifton, National Bureau of Standards 
Technical Note 1118, Washington, D.C.: May 1980. 

A Glossary of Historic Masonry Deterioration Problems and Preservation Treatments compiled by 
Anne E. Grimmer, Washington, D.C.: 1984. 

Moisture Problems in Historic Masonry Walls, Diagnosis and Treatment by Baird M. Smith, Washington, 
D.C.: 1984. 



Selected Skills—Analysis and Treatments-Masonry — page 34 



Analysis and Treatments — Mortar (and Stucco) 

Knowledge about how to collect and document mortar samples so that it can be analyzed to be used as 
a clue to the evolution of a building, for example, as evidence of new additions or maintenance 
practices; and to provide information about the constituents (cement, sand, fiber, etc.); information 
about the compressive and shear strength of the mortar; and information about the visual qualities of 
the mortar (sand color, etc.) 



Basic Level 

—Knowledge about the visual 
properties of mortars and how to 
find and take samples of historic 
unweathered morter to be used 
for analysis. 
—Knowledge about the 
methodologies of mortar 
analysis. 

—Awareness of the effects of 
weathering. 
—Knowledge about the 
performance of old and new 
mortars in historic masonry 
walls and various aspects of the 
properties of mortar including 
strength, porosity, plasticity, 
shrinkage, mortar proportions. 
—Knowledge of how lime was 
produced historically (including 
burning of limestone and 
hydration of lime). 



Advanced Level 

—Knowledge about the analysis 
of mortar to assist in 
formulating new mortars. 
--Ability to perform analyses to 
estimate relative proportions of 
the major groups of materials 
found in mortars including 
chemical tests and instrumental 
analytical methods. 
—Knowledge about the effects 
of weathering on changes of 
texture, sands and pigments. 
—Knowledge about stabilities of 
mortar and various 
efflorescences, hygroscopic salts 
and clays. 

—Knowledge about the 
chemistry of mortars. 



Master Level 

—Awareness of current 
researches (testing and analysis) 
being performed internationally 
and throughout the United States 
on mortar and stucco as 
materials. 

—Ability to understand and 
interpret the mortar analysis. 



Selected Bibliography: 

"SPNEA-APT Conference on Mortar, Boston, Massachusetts, March 15-16, 1973," by Morgan W. 
Phillips, APT Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 1, 1974, page 9-39. 

"Brief Notes on the Subjects of Analyzing Paints and Mortars and the Recording of Moulding Profiles," 
by Morgan W. Phillips, APT Bulletin, Vol. X, No. 2, 1978, page 77-89. 

"Chemical Techniques of Historic Mortar Analysis," by John Stewart and James Moore, APT Bulletin, 
Vol. X, No. IV, 1982, page 11-16. 

"Tests for the Analysis of Mortar Samples," by E. Blaine Cliver, APT Bulletin, Vol. VI, No. 1, 1974, 
pages 68-73. 



Selected Skills— Analysis... -Mortar (and Stucco) — page 35 



Analysis and Treatments— Cleaning 

Knowledge about techniques for cleaning historic structures to be able to understand the need and 
methods for testing and the effect of weather and temperature in determining the best cleaning 
method; to be able to match the technique to the material and condition; to be able to understand the 
chemical interaction between building materials and the cleaning agents and the effect those agents 
can have on those portions of the historic structure not intended for cleaning, for example, cleaning 
the cast iron facade by sandblasting while protecting the wooden window sash. 



Advanced Level 

—Ability to direct and/or specify 
work for specific cleaning tasks 
like removing lipstick on marble, 
limestone cleaning, poultices for 
stain removal, etc. 
—Knowledge about cleaning 
bronze statuary, especially 
problems associated with 
removing patina by chemical, 
abrasive or glass bead 
application. 



Master Level 

—Command of various cleaning 
techniques and full 
understanding of the ranges of 
stains and dirt, and knowledge 
about state-of-the-art (e.g. use 
of liquid nitrogen to remove 
bituminous coatings and paint). 
—Knowledge about the use of 
paints as an alternative to 
cleaning difficult or damaged 
surfaces including masonry or 
metals. 



Basic Level 

— Understanding Secretary's 
Standards and their application 
to NPS properties. 
—General knowledge of historic 
materials and conservation 
techniques. 

—Familiarity with Pres. Briefs 1, 
and NPS Masonry Glossary . 
—Understanding "gentlest means 
possible" and understanding the 
methodologies for developing the 
"gentlest means possible" for an 
historic structure. 
—Understanding the principles 
for cleaning metals including 
paint and products of corrosions. 

Continuing Education: (Check with these organizations for current and future course availability) 

—NPS training for Maintenance Managers, Maintenance Technicians, and Historical Architects 

—Campbell Center 

—Association for Preservation Technology (APT) 

—University of York, Great Britain 

Selected Bibliography: 

"Preservation Briefs 1: The Cleaning and Waterproof Coating of Masonry Buildings" by Robert C. 
Mack, Washington, D.C.: 1975. 

"Preservation Briefs 6: Dangers of Abrasive Cleaning to Historic Buildings," by Anne E. Grimmer, 
Washington, D.C.: 1979. 

"Preservation Briefs 10: Exterior Paint Problems on Historic Woodwork," by Kay D. Weeks and 
David W. Look, Washington, D.C.: 1982. 

Introduction to Early American Masonry ... by Harley 3. McKee, Washingto, D.C.: 1973. 

"The Chemistry of Masonry Cleaning," by Harold L. Heller, APT Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 2, 1977, 
pages 2-9. 

"Notes on the Treatment of Oil and Grease Staining on a Masonry Surface," by Frank G. Matero and Jo 
Ellen Freese, APT Bulletin, Vol. X, No. 2, 1978, pages 132-141. 

"Several Experiences Using Lime Paste as a Cleaning Agent for Oil Paint," by Morgan W. Phillips and 
Brian Powell, APT Bulletin, Vol. XIV, No. 2, 1982, pages 30-33. 

"A Diagnostic Study and Treatment Evaluation for the Cleaning of Perry's Victory and International 
Peace Memorial," by Frank G. Matero, APT Bulletin, Vol. XVI, No. 3/4, 1984, pages 39-51. 



Selected Skills— Analysis and Treatments-Cleaning — page 36 



Conservation of Historic Buildings, by Bernard M. Feilden, London: 1982. 

Exterior Cleaning of Historic Masonry Buildings by Norman R. Weiss, Washington, D.C.: 1977. 

Metals in America's Historic Buildings by Margot Gayle and David W. Look, Washington, D.C.: 1980. 



Selected Skills— Analysis and Treatments-Cleaning — page 37 



Analysis and Treatments — Repointing 

Knowledge about repointing of historic masonry structures to understand the design and impact of the 
craft practices and the chemical and color composition of the mortar; to be able to identify and 
prescribe needed repointing; to be able to prescribe the careful removal of mortar if needed; to 
understand the purpose of mortar as a sacrificial unit to the masonry; and to understand the overall 
functioning of mortar in allowing for the dynamics of the structure with the attendant dangers from 
sealants and overstrength mortar formulas. 



Basic Level 



Advanced Level 



Master Level 



—Understanding present masonry 
construction, craft practices 
(pencilling), bonding patterns, 
mortar materials, and 
familiarity with basic literature, 
such as Preservation Briefs 2 and 
similar source materials. 
— Ability to recommend when 
pointing is to be done and to 
what extent it is needed. 
—Knowledge and ability to 
specify and supervise repointing 
to assure the character and the 
performance of the masonry is 
preserved. 

—Knowledge about methods to 
remove old mortar without 
damaging adjacent masonry. 



Continuing Education: 



—Ability to prepare or direct the 
preparation of mortar analysis, 
and prepare samples for 
matching historic mortar colors, 
tooling, etc. 

—Ability to deal with replication 
of unusual or regional historic 
repointing practices, such as 
historic tuck pointing. 
—Knowledge about applications 
of using mechanical methods to 
remove mortar where that is 
appropriate. 

—Knowledge about packing and 
repacking the joints. 
—Awareness of the problems of 
badly deteriorated or missing 
header mortars. 



--Expert on mortar chemistry, 
historic craft practices, can 
participate in teaching 
demonstrations on the mixing 
and matching of mortars. 
—Knowledge about the pros and 
cons of other methods such as 
masking and sealants. 
Knowledge about how and when 
to use sealants, for example, on 
exterior steps. 

—Ability to grout or repack the 
joints. 

—Ability to evaluate the 
structural problems to determine 
whether repacking or use of a 
grouting system would be more 
appropriate. 

— Knowledge of how to repair 
and repoint mud mortars with 
lime pointing. 



—Repointing demonstration given at "Maintenance: Historic Structures for Technicians" by NPS in 
Harpers Ferry, WV 

Selected Bibliography: 

"Preservation Briefs 2: Repointing Mortar Joints in Historic Brick Buildings," by Robert C. Mack, 
de Teel Patterson Tiller, and James R. Askins, Washington, D.C.: 1980. 

"Brick Bibliography" by John R. Volz, APT Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. k, 1975, pages 38-49. 

Introduction to Early American Masonry ... by Harley J. McKee, Washington, D.C.: 1973. 

"The Russack System for Brick and Mortar Description: A Field Method for Assessing Masonry 
Hardness," by Maximilian L. Ferro, Technology and Conservation, Vol. 5, No. 2, Summer 1980, 
pages 32-35. 

"An Introduction to Repointing," by Robert C. Mack and James S. Askins, APT Bulletin, Vol. XI, No. 3, 
1979, pages 44-60. 

The Repointing of Historic Masonry Buildings, by Robert C. Mack and James 5. Askins, Downers Grove, 
Illinois: 1979. 



Selected Skills— Analysis and Treatments-Repointing — page 38 



Analysis and Treatments — Structural Movement 

Understanding techniques for monitoring structural movement, cracks, deflection, the effects of 
vibration in historic structures; knowledge about the technology for monitoring crack movement using 
such devices as strain gauges, electronic gauges, engineering "tell tales". Understanding testing of 
historic materials, where appropriate, to determine their structural capacities in tension, compression, 
shear, etc. Understanding how to evaluate historic structural systems that are indeterminate. 
Understanding the structural qualities that are contributed by such membranes of historic buildings as 
flooring, lathing, and sheathing. Understanding the principles and practices of reinforcement of 
historic masonry and wooden systems to strengthen and supplement the original system where possible 
and to provide a new system that will minimize the loss of historic fabric and meet structural 
requirements. For example, knowledge about soil stabilization, grouting, and other techniques to deal 
with differential settlement and other foundation damage. Knowledge about underpinning practices 
and needling to develop new spread footings for better distribution of imposed live and dead loads. 
Ability to diagnose structural movement which could be a function of soil subsidence, excavations, 
changes of water table; skill in diagnosing weaknesses in the structural system or connecting joints 
that are contributing to distortion, subsidence, deflection, etc.. 



Basic Level 

—Ability to read cracks for basic 

structural forces, including vibration. 

—Knowledge about stability of the 

"middle third" and understanding the 

engineering principles behind it. 

—Basic techniques for measuring 

structural movement. 

—Understanding generally accepted 

practice for reinforcement or 

improving the structural system, for 

example, introducing new supporting 

members. 

—Knowledge about the basic problems 

of making the structural system too 

strong or too stiff. 

—Understanding the basic systems of 

reanchoring masonry or decorative 

elements, as in facades, ornaments, 

and cornices. 

—Basic understanding of seismic 

reinforcing systems. 

—Ability to select and use a structural 

engineer familiar with working on and 

evaluating historic structures. 

—Understanding of basic damage 

control and stabilization evaluation 

techniques. 

—Knowledge about shoring, 

underpinning and scaffolding systems. 

—Knowledge about the effects of 
vibration caused by traffic, blasting, 
construction, and other external 
sources. 



Advanced Level 

—Knowledge of how to monitor 
and evaluate the soil behavior, 
i.e. shrinkage and subsidence. 
—Ability to interpret the 
measurements of structural 
movement. 

—Ability to specify and 
supervise methods to correct 
structural movement in design of 
the simpler reinforcement 
systems. 

—Ability to develop methods 
beyond generally accepted 
practice to reinforce or improve 
the structural system. 
—Understanding the more 
complex systems for reanchoring 
masonry or decorative elements. 
—Ability to make definitive 
evaluations regarding structural 
stability following a fire or 
natural catastrophe such as flood 
or earthquake, recognizing that 
the first 24 hours are critical to 
the structure's future survival. 
—Ability to design simpler 
shoring, underpinning and 
scaffolding systems. 
—Knowledge about how to 
monitor the effects of vibration 
over time and how to design a 
system for such monitoring. 



Master Level 

—Ability to design more 
complex reinforcement 
systems. 

—Ability to design shoring, 
underpinning and 
scaffolding system for all 
structures. 

—Knowledge about unusual 
techniques for soil 
stabilization, such as 
chemical freezing and soil 
modification such as 
grouting and mud jacking. 
—Knowledge of when and 
how to remove or open up a 
ceiling, floor or wall, to 
ascertain if repairs are 
needed. Since such 
practices often lead to the 
destruction of original 
fabric, ability to mitigate 
such actions so that 
portions of the fabric can 
be retained in place or to 
be able to assess the 
structural condition 
sufficiently that such 
destruction is not needed 
at all. 

—Knowledge about ways to 
mitigate the effects of 
vibration. 



Selected Skills— Analysis and Treatments-Structural Movement — page 39 



Selected Bibliography: 

"Observed and Computed Settlements of Structures in Chicago," by Ralph B. Peck and Mehmet Ensar 
Uyanik, University of Illinois Bulletin Engineering Experiment Station, No. 429, Vol. 52, No. 53, March 
1955. 

"Effect of Vibration on Historic Buildings: An Overview," by J.H. Rainer, APT Bulletin, Vol. XIV, 
No. 1, 1982, page 2-10. 

"Building Conservation: Bibliographical Notes" by Charles St. George Pope, APT Bulletin, Vol. V, 
No. 1, 1973, pages 65-67. 

"Assessing the Effect of Vibration on Historic Buildings," by Walter Sedovic, APT Bulletin, Vol. XVI, 
No. 3/4, 1984, pages 52-61. 

"Damp Buildings, Old and New," by Givanni and Ippolito Massari, APT Bulletin, Vol. XVII, No. 1, 1985, 
pages 2-30. 

Conservation of Historic Buildings, by Bernard M. Feilden, London: 1982. 

"Computer Enhancement of Radiographic Films Used in Structural Investigation of an Historic 
Structure," by William Firschein, APT Bulletin, Vol. XIV, No. 2, 1982, page 19. 

"A Simple Method for Measuring the Yield Strength of Steel in Heritage Buildings," by Don Nixon, APT 
Bulletin, Vol. XV, No. 2, 1983, pages 17-19. 

"Nondestructive Techniques for Evaluating Metalic Artifacts of Historical Interest, by Paul Wencil 
Brown and James R. Clifton, APT Bulletin , Vol. VIII, No. 4, 1976, pages 2-21. 

"Structural Reinforcement of Historic Wooden Temples in Japan," by Kiyoshi Kaneta, APT Bulletin, 
Vol. XII, No. 1, 1980, page 75. 

"A Preservation Monitoring System at Tumacacori National Monument," by Anthony Crosby, APT 
Bulletin, Vol. X, No. 2, 1978, page 47. 



Selected Skills— Analysis and Treatments-Structural Movement -- page 40 



Analysis and Treatments—Paint 

Knowledge about how to remove and document paint samples and how to analyze paints and finishes 
and knowledge about how to use the analysis and take into account the changes that may have occurred 
to the paints or finishes over time; and how to use the analysis to aid in producing new paints or 
finishes that will be historically correct in all respects. 



Advanced Level 

—Knowledge about specific 
performance of historic and 
modern paint ingredients i.e., 
pigments and vehicles. 
—Knowledge about graining 
characteristics and to be able to 
specify glazed and rubbed 
finishes. 

--Knowledge about dealing with 
failed paint film, preparing 
substrates for new paint films. 
—Knowledge about paint 
chemistry to be able to specify 
modern paint systems and a 
variety of conditions. 
—Knowledge about decorating, 
painting, stencilling, daubing, 
their tools, etc. 
—Ability to perform paint 
analysis both chemical and 
physical. Knowledge about 
microscopy. 



Master Level 

—Knowledge about the more 
unusual finishes such as 
scagliola, decorative lacquers. 
—Knowledge about specifying 
modern high-performance 
coatings (organic coatings, 
modern automatic finishes). 
—Knowledge about re-attaching 
failed paint films. 



Basic Level 

—Knowledge of standard color 
references like NBS-Munsell. 
—Knowledge about historic 
catalogs like Devoe, Sherwin 
Williams. 

— Knowledge about how to use 
paint in chromochronology and 
color matching. 
—Knowledge of literature on 
historic painting practices, uses 
of color, decorative painting. 
— Knowledge enough about 
painting practices to be able to 
distinguish prime coats, and 
undercoats (for marbling and 
graining) from finish coats. 
— Knowing how to recognize dirt 
layers. Knowledge of paint film 
failures and general remedies. 
—Understand color migration 
(fading and intensifying). 
Understand properties of paint 
constituents, especially vehicles, 
properties of fugitive pigments. 
—Understand basic kinds of 
paints, such as calsomine, oil 
paints, latex. Be aware of 
graining and marbling. 

Selected Bibliography: 

"Techniques Employed at the North Atlantic Historic Preservation Center For the Sampling and 
Analysis of Historic Architectural Paints and Finishes," by Carole L. Perrault, APT Bulletin , Vol. X, 
No. 2, 1978, page 6-46. 

"Historic Exterior Paints -- Guidelines for Establishing Whether a Sample Contains a Layer Original to 
the Building's Construction," by Nancy Locke Doonan, APT Bulletin, Vol. XIV, No. 2, 1982, page 26-29. 

"Note Re: Paint," contributed by Harley McKee, APT Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 1/2, 1970, page 14. 

Glass, Paints, Varnishes and Brushes by Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company, Pittsburgh, PA: '921. 

International Library of Technology, Vol. 32, on Plumbing and Gas-Fitting, Heating and Ventilation of 
Buildings, Painting and Decorating, Estimating and Calculating Quantities, by International Textbook 
Company, includes material on marbling, graining, stenciling, gilding and paper hanging (138 pages), 
Scranton, PA: 1903. 

"Discoloration of Old House Paints: Restoration of Paint Colors at the Harrison Gray Otis House, 
Boston," by Morgan W. Phillips, APT Bulletin, Vol. Ill, No. 4, 1971, pages 40-47 . 



Selected Skills— Analysis and Treatments-Paint -- page 41 



The Tasteful Interlude; American Interiors Through the Camera's Eye 1860-1917, by William Seale, 
New York: 1975. 

Century of Color: Exterior Decoration for American Buildings 1820-1920, by Roger W. Moss, Watkins 
Glen, New York: 1981. 

Munsell Book of Color Glossy Finish Collection, 1976 edition, available from Munsell Color, 2441 N. 
Calvert St., Baltimore, Maryland 21218, 301-?'+ 3-2171, cost $717.00. 

"Some Personal Observations on the Use of Paint in Early Ontario," by Jeanne Minhinnick, APT 
Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 2, 1975, pages 15-30. 

"The Peter Wentz House 18th Century Sponge Painting in Pennsylvania," by Frank Sagendorph Welsh, 
APT Bulletin, Vol. VII, No. 2, 1975, pages 124-130. 

"Restoration of the Exterior Sanded Paint at Monticello," by Frank S. Welsh and Charles L. Granquist, 
APT Bulletin, Vol. XV, No. 2, 1983, pages 2-10. 

"Zinc for Paint and Architectural Use in the 19th Century," by Arthur Channing Downs, Jr., APT 
Bulletin, Vol. VIII, No. 4, 1976, pages 80-99. 

"A Methodology for Exposing and Preserving Architectural Graining," by Frank S. Welsh, APT Bulletin, 
Vol. VIII, No. 2, 1976, pages 70-75. 

"Acrylic Paints for Restoration," by Morgan W. Phillips, APT Bulletin, Vol. XV, No. 1, 1983, pages 2-11. 

See chart entitled "History of Coating Industry in the United States," APT Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 1, 1973, 
pages 6-7. 

"The Introduction of American Zinc Paints, ca. 1850," by Arthur Channing Downs, Jr., APT Bulletin, 
Vol. VI, No. 2, 1974, pages 36-37. 

"Some Notes on Paint Research and Reproduction," by Morgan W. Phillips and Norman R. Weiss, APT 
Bulletin , Vol. VII, No. 4, 1975, pages 14-19. 

"A Mid-Nineteenth Century Color Scheme," by Calder Loth, APT Bulletin, Vol. IX, No. 2, 1977, 
pages 82-88. 

"Paints for Architectural Cast Iron," by Pamela W. Hawkes, APT Bulletin, Vol. XI, No. 1, 1979, 
pages 17-36. 

"Some Architectural Conservation Health Hazards," by Richard Byrne, APT Bulletin, Vol. XI, No. 2, 
1979, pages 23-29. 

"A Rare Example of Early Nineteenth Century Trompe L'Oeil Decoration," by Frank G. Matero, APT 
Bulletin, Vol. XV, No. 3, 1983, pages 34-38. 

"Conservation and Transfer of an Early 19th Century Painted Room," by Ian Hodkinson, APT Bulletin, 
Vol. XIV, No. 1, 1982, pages 17-35. 

APT Bulletin, Vol. XVI, No. 1, 1984, entire issue is on "Decorative Finishes." 

"A Study of Historic Paint Colors and the Effects of Environmental Exposures on Their Colors and 
Their Pigments," by Peggy A. Albee, APT Bulletin, Vol. XVI, No. 3/4, 1984, pages 3-25. 

"Removal of Interior Coatings at the Statue of Liberty," by Frances Gale and John C. Robbins, APT 
Bulletin, Vol. XVI, No. 3/4, 1984, pages 63-65. 

Paint Color Research and Restoration of Historic Paint compiled by Kevin H. Miller, Ottawa, Canada: 
1977. 

Aurora Blue: Identifying and Analyzing Interior Paint in an Oregon Utopia, ca. 1870 by Bonnie Wehle 
Parks, (Cultural-Technical Booklet Number Two), Eugene, Oregon: 1986. 

Conservation of Historic Buildings, by Bernard M. Feilden, London: 1982. 

Selected Skills— Analysis and Treatments-Paint — page 42 



Analysis and Treatments— Mechanical and Electrical Systems 

Understanding the need to design a Heating/Ventilation/Air Conditioning (HVAC) system to meet the 
use and occupancy needs of the historic structure without causing extensive loss of historic fabric or 
creating an HVAC system that is visually inappropriate to the structure's historic character or one that 
will cause excessive vibration or noise as a result of introducing new equipment. Understanding how to 
take into account the existence of historic mechanical equipment and their possible reuse. 
Understanding how to use the configuration of the building in the design and distribution of mechanical 
equipment, be it heating, cooling, electrical, plumbing, whatever. One of the most difficult aspects of 
restoration work is understanding how to design an HVAC system that will meet the needs of both the 
historic structure and any objects that may be exhibited. Understanding the interrelationship between 
certain kinds of energy retrofitting such as insulating cavity walls with the installation of 
environmental control equipment that might have the effect of introducing condensation into the wall 
or increasing the moisture level of wooden members embedded in the masonry. 



Basic Level 



Advanced Level 



Master Level 



--Knowledge about how to 
recognize existing systems.-- 
Have a talking knowledge about 
retrofitting of existing systems, 
such as new controls, putting a 
pump on a gravity system, 
putting fans on a gravity air 
system, new boilers. 
—Ability to recognize historic 
character of existing grilles and 
outlets, radiators. 
—Knowledge about how to hide a 
system to minimize visual and 
physical impact. 

—Understand the variety of ways 
to light historic spaces with 
historically appropriate and safe 
equipment. 

—Understanding the factors for 
selection and insulation 
regarding insulation in cavity 
walls, and vapor retarders. 
—Knowledge of noise 
attenuation systems, and ability 
to discuss them with mechanical 
engineers. 



—Ability to use state-of-the-art 
technology such as special 
lighting fixtures, small diameter 
plumbing and venting or flat 
cable wiring, especially for low 
voltage, under carpets, under 
wall paper. 

—Knowledge of historic 
insulative systems such as 
seaweed, horsehair, sand, waffle 
and daub, biscuits, etc. 
—Knowledge about special 
materials for preserving historic 
electrical fixtures including 
special wire. 

— Understanding the interface 
between environmental control 
needs for collections and the 
structure — understand the 
problems of achieving such 
balance where there is high 
visitation, where there is no 
vestibule. 



—Knowledge about special 
considerations for museum 
objects, or special considerations 
for unusual configurations of 
historic buildings. 
—Knowledge about how to find a 
knowledgable engineer or 
contractor to test and evaluate 
historic heating systems. 



Selected Bibliography: 

"Heating Stoves in 18th Century Philadelphia," by Samuel Y. Edgerton, Jr., APT Bulletin, Vol. Ill, 
No. 2/3, 1971, pages 15-104. 

"The Infancy of Central Heating in the United States: 1803 to 1845," by Benjamin L. Walbert III, APT 
Bulletin, Vol. Ill, No. 4, 1971, pages 76-88. 

"A Signed and Dated 1851 Furnace in Rome, New York," by Orville W. Carroll, APT Bulletin, Vol. Ill, 
No. 4, 1971, pages 89-92. 



Selected Skills— Analysis..-Mechanical and Electrical Systems — page 43 



"Chapter XXX, Heating and Ventilation of Buildings," and "Chapter XXXI, Chimneys," by Louis A. 
Harding, in the Kidder-Parker Architects and Builders Handbook, by Frank E. Kidder and Harry Parker, 
18th edition, New York: 1945. 

International Library of Technology, Vol. 32, on Plumbing and Gas-Fitting, Heating and Ventilation of 
Buildings, Painting and Decorating, Estimating and Calculating Quantities; the section on Heating and 
Ventilation of Buildings (196 pages); Scranton, PA: 1903. 

Modern Engineering Practice: Vol. XII, Ventilating, Heating, Plumbing, Carpentry, Index edited by 
Frank W. Gunsaulus, Chicago: 1906. Includes chapters on Warming, Ventilation, Heating, Plumbing, 
Sewerage, Water, pages 11-316. 

Building Early America, edited by Charles E. Peterson, Radnor, Pennsylvania: 1976. 

Outline of History of Lighting by Gas by Dean Chandler, London, 1936. 

Modern Plumbing Number Eight 3.L. Mott Iron Works, New York: 1914. (First Edition.) 

Collection of Heating and Lighting Utensils in the United States Natonal Museum by Walter Hough, 
Smithsonian Institution United States National Museum Bulletin 141, Washington, D.C.: 1928. 

Industrial Chicago The Building Interests The Goodspeed Publishing Company, Chicago: 1891. with 
chapters on Plumbing, Heating and Ventilation, Gas and Electric Lighting, Paving, Wood, Painting. 

"Building Automation System at Iolani Palace, Honolulu, Hawaii," by Randall J. Biallas, APT Bulletin, 
Vol. XIII, No. 1, 1981, pages 7-15. 

"Steam and Hot-Water Fitting," by W.G. Snow (pages 135-200); "Electric Wiring" by Charles E. Knox 
(pages 201-272); "Electric Bell Wiring," by H.C. Trow (pages 273-284); "Electric Lighting," by G.C. 
Shaad (pages 285-350) in "Reinforced Concrete, Steam Fitting, Electricity," Vol. IV of Cyclopedia of 
Architecture, Carpentry and Building, American Technical Society, Chicago, 1908. 

Heating and Ventilating of Buildings Vol. 241 of the International Library of Technology, International 
Correspondence Schools, Scranton, Pennsylvania: 1928. 

Plumbing and Gas Fitting Vol. 240B of the International Library of Technology, by International 
Correspondence Schools, Scranton, Pennsylvania: 1927. 

Conservation of Historic Buildings, by Bernard M. Feilden, London: 1982. 

"Electric Lighting and Wiring in Historic American Buildings: Guidelines for Restoration and 
Rehablitation Projects," by Melissa L. Cook and Maximilian L. Ferro, Technology and Conservation, 
Vol. 8, No. 1, Spring 1983, pages 28-48. 

Gaslighting in America: A Guide to Historic Preservation by Denys Peter Myers, Washington, D.C.: 
1978. 



Selected Skills— Analysis.. -Mechanical and Electrical Systems — page 44 



Analysis and Treatments — Fire Protection 

Understanding fire prevention and protection planning principles; understanding how to analyze the 
historic structure for fire risks. Knowledge of current building codes and knowledge of the National 
Fire Protection Association guidelines and technical information. Knowledge of the various kinds of 
equipment, products and services related to fire detection and fire suppression. Understanding the 
various factors for selecting the use of such equipment and systems when historic structures are also 
being used for the exhibit of museum objects. 



Advanced Level 

—Knowledge about the special 
and unique problems brought 
about by location and fire 
risks, for example not enough 
water pressure available to be 
able to use a sprinkler system. 
—Knowledge about unusual 
ways of installing or 
concealing fire suppression 
systems. 

—Knowledge about the 
rehabilitation of historic fire 
suppression systems, for 
example, the Edison 
Laboratory had a sprinkler 
system that it was possible to 
reuse. 

—Knowledge of fire detection 
and suppression as 
equivalancy for meeting life 
safety codes. 

—Ability to design and specify 
fire detection and fire 
suppression. 



Master Level 

—Knowledge about unusual 
ways of installing or 
concealing fire suppression 
systems. 

—Knowledge about special 
considerations for museum 
objects or special 
consideration of unusual 
configurations of historic 
buildings relative to fire 
suppression. 



Basic Level 

—Knowledge about basic concepts in 
fire protection. 
—Knowledge about fire code 
equivalencies for historic structures 
including application to simple 
building types. 

—Ability to evaluate historic 
structures according to the NPS Fire 
Equivalency Program for Overnight 
Lodging Facilities, especially when a 
change in usage is proposed or 
planned. 

—Basic knowledge of the hardware of 
fire sprinkler and suppression 
systems. Knowledge about the pros 
and cons of semi-concealed 
installation and surface mounted 
installation. 

—Understanding the principles for 
alternative locations for hardware, for 
example, sidewall sprinklers as 
opposed to ceiling sprinklers. 
—Knowledge about the pros and cons 
of the various fire suppression systems 
and applications and knowledge about 
the limitations of Halon. 
—Knowledge of portable or temporary 
systems, such as detector heads or 
suppression systems set into rooms 
after a building is closed for the night, 
e.g. a Halon tank. 

Selected Bibliography; 

"Chapter XXII, Fire-Proofing of Buildings," by George E. Strehan in Kidder-Parker Architects and 
Builders Handbook by Frank E. Kidder and Harry Parker, 18th edition, New York: 1945. 

"Safety Considerations in Halon 1301 vs. C0 2 Fire Systems," by Herb Martin, APT Bulletin, Vol. X, 
No. 2, 1978, page 143. 

"Fire Ratings of Archaic Materials and Assemblies," by Howard Markham, APT Bulletin, Vol. XIII, 
No. 2, 1981, pages 19-22. 

Conservation of Historic Buildings, by Bernard M. Feilden, London: 1982. 

"Fire Protection Planning for Cultural Institutions: Blending Risk Management, Loss Prevention, and 
Physical Safeguards," by Alphonse T. Tiszkus and E.G. Dressier, Technology and Conservation, Vol. 5, 
No. 2, Summer 1980, pages 18-23. 



Selected Skills— Analysis and Treatments-Fire Protection — page k5 



Analysis and Treatments — Maintenance Systems 

Knowledge about the impact of maintenance practices on the historic structure; knowledge of cyclical 
maintenance needs; knowledge of those routine maintenance practices that can seriously harm the 
historic structure; knowledge of how to train maintenance personnel in appropriate maintenance 
techniques for historic structures; knowledge of how to prepare written maintenance guidelines. 
Knowledge of maintenance practices in the National Park Service. 



Basic Level 



Advanced Level 



Master Level 



—Understanding the component 
parts of an Historic Structure 
Preservation Guide. Ability to 
prepare such a Guide for a 
simple structure. 
—Understanding of the basic 
elements and performance 
standards for inspection of 
existing conditions. 



Continuing Education: 



—Ability to prepare Historic 
Structure Preservation Guides 
for more complex structures, or 
more complex building materials 
with a higher degree of finishes, 
or for structures with special 
preservation problems such as a 
severe environmental condition 
that will need special followup 
after consolidation. 
—Understands the negative 
impact on certain maintenance 
practices, not only upon the 
materials but upon the system. 
—Knowledge of how to set up a 
monitoring system to enable an 
architect to receive and 
evaluate necessary data. 
—Recognition of the special 
problems for an historic 
structure created by how it is 
used. 

—Ability to provide professional 
review of a Maintenance 
Management System. 



—Can analyze maintenance 
needs, and develop a 
management system to set up a 
long range program for 
preservation of historic 
properties. 

—Ability to prepare Historic 
Structure Preservation Guide 
with a higher level of 
determination at what time do 
you suggest intervention as a 
result of maintenance. 
—Ability to determine higher 
intensity of maintenance 
treatment or some specific 
preservation treatments. 



—"Historic Preservation Maintenance" at Campbell Center 

—"Maintenance: Cultural Resources for Managers" for NPS facility managers and superintendents 

—"Maintenance: Historic Structures for Technicians" for NPS maintenance personnel 

Selected Bibliography: 

Cyclical Maintenance for Historic Buildings by 3. Henry Chambers, Washington, D.C.: 1976. 

Maintenance of Old Buildings: Preservation from the Technical and Antiquarian Standpoint by Ingmar 
Holstrom and Christina Sandstrom, Stockholm: 1975. 

"Conserving Large Estates: Problems of Maintaining the Great Turn-of-the-Century Homes," by 
Maximilian L. Ferro, Technology and Conservation, Vol. 6, No. 3, Fall 1981, pages 22-27. 

The Care of Old Buildings Today: A Practical Guide by Donald W. Insall, London, 1972. 

Conservation of Historic Buildings, by Bernard M. Feilden, London: 1982. 



Selected Skills—Analysis and Treatments-Maintenance Systems — page 46 



Vieux Carre Masonry Maintenance Guidelines, New Orleans, LA: 1980. 

Building Maintenance and Preservation edited by Edward D. Mills, London and Boston, 1980. 

* Repair and Maintenance of Houses by Melville <Jc Gordon 

* "Handbook of Maintenance Techniques for Buildings. ..Texas," Rev. ed. 1984, Texas Historical 
Commission 



♦Note: Asterisked items signify incomplete citations. 



Selected Skills—Analysis and Treatments-Maintenance Systems — page k7 



PARTICIPATION IN THE SKILLS DEVELOPMENT PLAN 

Why You Should Enroll in the Plan 2 

What You Agree To Do 2 

How You Enroll 2 

The Role of Your Supervisor 2 



Participation in the Plan 3 



Step 1 
Step 2 
Step 3 
Step 4 



Develop an Individual Development Plan 3 

Develop a Personal Study Plan 3 

Develop Personal "Projects" 5 

Prepare an Annual Personal Assessment 6 



Timetable for Submission of Material to Begin Particxpation 7 



Forms 

Enrollment Form 8 

Annual Personal Study Plan Form 9 

Annual Personal Assessment Form 10 



WHY YOU SHOULD ENROLL IN THE PLAN 

There are a variety of personal and professional reasons why you might choose 
to participate in the Skills Development Plan including: 

— increased opportunities for learning, 

— increased recognition when sharing information, and 

— gaining the ability to do more within an existing job. 



WHAT YOU AGREE TO DO 

When you enroll, you agree to prepare at least three "projects" during a three- 
year enrollment period. A "project" could be presented orally, in writing or 
graphicly. 

The three "projects" are intended to help you improve your historic 
preservation skills and expertise. Examples of such "projects" are provided 
(on pages 5-6 of this section) to help you develop your interests so they can 
be of use to both you and the Service. 



HOW YOU ENROLL 

You enroll by filling out the enrollment form, asking your supervisor to concur 
in your enrollment, and following the instructions and timetable for 
participation. The enrollment form is an employee-supervisor agreement that 
acknowledges your commitment. 



THE ROLE OF YOUR SUPERVISOR 

Your supervisor's role in this Plan is to review and consider approval of your 
request for enrollment in the Skills Development Plan; to review your personal 
study plan annually; to assist in improving your skills within the framework of 
your current job; and to consider the allowance of a certain latitude within 
your job to permit the acquisition of new skills. 



Participation — page 2 



PARTICIPATION IN THE SKILLS DEVELOPMENT PLAN 

There are two primary goals for participation in the Skills Development Plan. 
The first goal is to foster professional growth in the field of historic 
preservation to assure high quality preservation of cultural resources in the 
National Park Service; the second goal is to augment the base of shared 
knowledge for historic architecture and historical architects in the National 
Park Service. There are four steps that both address these goals and serve as 
requirements for your participation. 

STEP 1. DEVELOP AN INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (IDP)* 

The Individual Development Plan (IDP) is a document used for identifying your 
objectives for planning your career through training and special assignments. 
The IDP is an existing formal process and is required of all NPS personnel 
whether they're in this program or not. It becomes the administrative basis 
for planning training throughout the Service. The IDP can be used not only for 
formalized training but also for selected experiential opportunities including 
self-training, informal training, and on-the-job training. Self-training can 
include reading articles or learning how to use specialized preservation 
equipment. Informal training could include a visit to an Architectural Study 
Collection such as the one at Independence National Historical Park or a visit 
to a factory that produces components for historic building systems. On-the- 
job training could include accompanying a senior level historical architect on 
an inspection of structures to record with sketches and photographs the 
problems and range of solutions considered. We encourage you to fully utilize 
the potential of this form. The IDP becomes the official basis for the next 
step, which will require that you expand your career planning to encompass the 
steps required for participation in the Skills Development Plan. 



STEP 2. DEVELOP A PERSONAL STUDY PLAN 

You need to develop an annual Personal Study Plan for skills development. This 
study plan should define an area of job-related professional interest; estimate 
the amount of job time and identify the kinds of tasks needed to develop this 
interest; and describe the resulting product. (See Sample Study Plan on next 
page). This Personal Study Plan should be reviewed by your supervisor, then 
sent to the Skills Development Plan Coordinator for review by the authors and 
to provide guidance on bibliographic or other sources and about accomplishing 
the final product. Note that it is important to narrow the scope of your 
topic; especially in this first year of participation, think of a realistically 
achievable, job-related task and "project." If your colleagues have similar 
areas of interest, please coordinate the development of your personal study 
plan with theirs. 



*Note: The acronym, IDP is coincidentally used by both the National Park 
Service and the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards but this 
acronym describes TWO DIFFERENT programs. The National Park Service IDP means 
Individual Development Plan and is a single page form that is prepared annually 
to accompany Employee Performance Standards; its use is described here. The 
National Council of Architectural Registration Boards' IDP means Intern- 
Architect Development Program and is described in detail in the "Appendix A: 
NPS Intern-Architects Guide to Architectural Licensing. " 



SAMPLE PERSONAL STUDY PLAN 



Area of Interest 

I select local slate roofing practices as my area of interest, this will enable 
me to increase my knowledge of historic roofing practices per se , to better 
evaluate the condition of existing roofs, to give advice on roofing repairs, 
and to write specifications. Study of slate roofing practices includes the 
kinds and colors of slate used, the shapes, geometric patterns, the use of 
polychrome slating and the use of slates that are graduated in size, how these 
roofing practices handled problems of valleys, ridges, dormers, turrets, vent 
stacks, and eaves; I am also interested in the various repair and replacement 
techniques and tools. 

Estimated Time Needed to Develop This "Project" 

— I estimate that it will take 3 weekends to visually survey, photograph, 

identify buildings and take notes in this study area. 

— 2 days of office time to review and obtain copies of historic photographs 

in the local historical society records. 

— 2 days of office time to study, organize and annotate those historic 

photographs. z 

— Some personal time needed to collect, where possible, samples of slates 

from demolished buildings that can be used for reference purposes in 

explaining and demonstrating slating materials and characteristxcs with some 

evidence of craft practices and for the purposes of writing specifications. 

— Some personal time to look at: earlier trade catalogs if available, 

general articles regarding the history of roofing, and to consult articles 

in the Selected Bibliography. 

— 1 day for consultation and comments from supervisor and other colleagues 

as to the direction of this Study Plan and the achievability of the written 

and graphic "project." 

— 1 day of office time for oral interviews with local roofing contractors 

about slate repair techniques to discuss methods to avoid damaging adjacent 

slates during repair, including taking photographs of their tools and 

equipment. 

Final "Project" 

A mixture of 1 day personal time and 1 day office time to prepare the final 
written and graphic project which may include new photographs, slides, 
annotated historic photographs, sketches, drawings, summary of interviews, 
written report or poster board. Copies to be made for the office and regional 
files, copies to the local historical society and a copy to the Skills 
Development Plan Coordinator. 



Participation — page 4 



STEP 3. DEVELOP PERSONAL "PROJECTS" 

You need to prepare three presentations during your three year enrollment. 
These presentations are your personal skills development "projects." They are 
intended to demonstrate your personal/professional development and should take 
place in an arena where there are reader or audience responses. These 
"projects" can be in an oral, written and/or graphic format or any 
combination. When completed, copies of the "project" are to be made for your 
office, your region, the local cooperating organization (such as an historical 
society) and the Skills Development Plan Coordinator. 

Examples of Oral "Projects" 

You could: 

use an onsite visit to an historic district, building, or preservation 
project to focus on one of your areas of interest, to observe, take 
photographs and prepare a "brown bag" lunch slide/lecture on your topic of 
study; 

collaborate with NPS or other colleagues to do an informal workshop on a 
specific topic; 

prepare a slide show or other "project" to a technical preservation 
audience, such as an architect's workshop, NPS training course, or the local 
APT chapter or Friends of Terra (Jotta, on your research and findings; 

assist the State Historic Preservation Office in their annual preservation 
workshop for local citizens, private architects and local design review 
boards; 



Examples of Written "Projects" 

You could: 

develop or collaborate on an article for the CRM Bulletin, the APT Bulletin, 
a Preservation Tech Note; 

prepare an annotated (and illustrated) compilation of buildings in your 
region that exhibit certain kinds of craft practices or preservation 
problems, for instance a list of examples of Luxfer prism glass in a 
district or city, a list of buildings with examples of patterned slate work, 
a list of places in an historic district where there is evidence of early 
paving and landscape materials; 

familiarize yourself with stone types used in your geographical region by 
period of time to observe, record, or compile notes about the stone's visual 
and physical appearance, the evidences of regional craftsmanship as applied 
to that stone, and evidences of its performance in the environment; you 
could consult with geologists at the local university about its physical 
properties and availability and/or suitability for replacement or repair 
work; 

Participation — page 5 



Examples of Graphic "Projects" 

You could: 

develop a collaborative project with other colleagues, and prepare a 
compilation or compendium of historic photographs of historic structures in 
a given city or region and extensively annotate the photographs to point out 
building practices for different types of buildxngs and different periods of 
time. Such practices could include sash configuration, use of shutters, 
rain water disposal, roofing practices, paving patterns, painted brick work 
etc. This compendium could result in a very specific and sharable local 
report focusing on building technology and craft practices; 

make a video on a craft technique or other topic; 

participate in the preparation of an exhibit on historic architecture, 
building technology or craft technique for your office or at the local AIA 
chapter house or some other location; 

prepare a "poster session" on a technical preservation topic; 

select a masonry building or a small group of masonry buildings to use as a 
basis for a year-long study to observe the effects of moisture upon various 
types of masonry materials (brick, stone, stucco), to observe the effects of 
the building design or configuration upon its wetting, tc observe the 
effects of building orientation, to observe the effects of roof overhangs, 
sidewalks, paving materials, and plant materials upon wetting and splash of 
masonry materials, to observe rising damp and "tide" marks upon wails, to 
regularly observe these buildings after every rain fall or snow fall where 
practical, to take photographs of the effects of wetting, to look for 
seasonal differences in wetting patterns and record the length of time 
required to dry out, to compile a chronological and visual record, to draw 
conclusions, where possible, and to present this information in a way that 
can be shared with others so that there is a permanent record of this period 
of observation. 



STEP 4. PREPARE AN ANNUAL PERSONAL ASSESSMENT 

You need to provide information on an annual basis on work undertaken and 
completed towards skills enhancement. (See page 10 for Annual Personal 
Assessment form. ) This is a key ingredient to completing the program and 
receiving the certificate at the end of the first three year enrollment 
period. Your comments on improving the Skills Development Plan are also most 
important. 



Participation — page 6 



TIMETABLE FOR SUBMISSION OF MATERIAL TO BEGIN YOUR PARTICIPATION 

IN THE SKILLS DEVELOPMENT PLAN 



By August 22, 1986, you send in: 

— a copy of your Individual Development Plan, 

— the Enrollment Form signed by you and your supervisor, and 

— the Personal Study Plan developed by you and reviewed by your supervisor. 



By September 30, 1986, you should receive: 

— your Enrollment Form, fully signed, 

— your Personal Study Plan with notes and comments, and 

— a copy of sample text for preparing your next Individual Development Plan. 



Participation — page 7 



ENROLLMENT IN THE SKILLS DEVELOPMENT PLAN 
FOR NPS HISTORICAL ARCHITECTS 



Note: Make a photocopy of this form. When you and your supervisor have signed 
the photocopied form, mail it to: Skills Development Plan Coordinator, c/o 
Preservation Assistance Division (424), National Park Service, P.O. Box 37127, 
Washington, D.C. 20013-7217. When signed, it will be returned to you. 

I want to enroll in the Skills Development Plan for National Park Service 
Historical Architects for a three year period. I agree to: 

— prepare an annual Individual Development Plan; 

— develop an annual Personal Study Plan for skills development; 

— prepare three "projects'* (oral, written, or graphic), during this three 

year period; and, 

— provide information on an annual basis on work undertaken and completed 

towards skills enhancement in the Annual Personal Assessment. 



NPS Historical Architect date 

I concur: 



Supervisor date 

NPS Unit 



Enrollment accepted on and to be monitored annually by: 



Chief Historical Architect date 

National Park Service 



Chief, Preservation Assistance Division date 
National Park Service 



Skills Development Plan Coordinator date 

National Park Service 



Chief Training Officer date 

Mflfi nnal Pa r\r C a r-i rA o a 



ANNUAL PERSONAL STUDY PLAN 



Note: Make a photocopy of this form. After you have filled it out, ask your 
supervisor to review and surname it and mail it to: Skills Development Plan 
Coordinator, c/o Preservation Assistance Division (424), National Park Service, 
P.O. Box 37127, Washington, D.C. 20013-7127. It will be reviewed and returned to 
you with comments. 



Name : 

Office: Date: 

Area of Job-Related Professional Interest for the year . 



Estimated Time Needed To Develop This "Project" for the year 



Describe the Proposed "Project" for the year 



ANNUAL PERSONAL ASSESSMENT BY 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE HISTORICAL ARCHITECTS 
PARTICIPATING IN THE SKILLS DEVELOPMENT PLAN 



Name: Office: 

Date: 



Note: Make a photocopy of this Annual Personal Assessment form (pages 10-14), 
provide your comments, suggestions, and copies of material produced and mail as 
instructed on page 14. (Supervisors of historical architects are invited to make 
a photocopy and provide comments from their perspective, and send it in.) 

We appreciate your cooperation in providing information on your participation in 
the Skills Development Plan. This information will not be used as a basis for 
evaluation by Personnel; it will be used to verify participation in this Skills 
Development Plan for National Park Service Historical Architects and to develop 
improvements to the Skills Development Plan and its implementation. 



EVIDENCE OF YOUR PARTICIPATION 

1. Please attach a copy of the Individual Development Plan (IDP). 

2. Please provide a concise list of those training, projects, and office 
experiences that you had in the last year that you felt contributed to your 
attainment of one or more skills listed in the "Catalog." Use the back of the 
page or attach pages if needed. 



Participation — page 10 



3. Please provide a list of your "projects," talks, participation in symposiums, 
publications, Tech Notes, FEEDBACK, etc. and a copy of any materials developed. 



4. Please provide any additional material you may feel is relevant to serve as 
evidence of your having attained elements of a given skill. 



5. Any comments? 



Participation — page 11 



SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF THE SKILLS DEVELOPMENT PLAN 

1. Please provide your suggestions on new training or improved existing 
training. Please provide your suggestions on awards or recognition systems that 
could be used in this Skills Development Plan. 



2. Are there other areas of expertise that should be included in the basic or 
"must know" list of skills? If possible, please fill in all or part of a Selected 
Skill and send in with this assessment. 



3. Can you suggest portions of Historic Structure Reports or Historic Structure 
Preservation Guides that contain information about a research technique or a craft 
technique that would have relevance to other projects, and should be shared with 
others? 



Participation — page 12 



4. Are there specific skills listed in the "Catalog" that you feel need to be 
developed into a training course? 



5. Are there changes, additions, or deletions you would make to the Selected 
Biblographies? 



6. Are you aware of training in your geographic area on a specific skill topic? 
Please provide the course name and a name, address, and telephone number. 



Participation — page 13 



Any comments? 



SEND TO: 

Please mail this information to: 

Skills Development Plan Coordinator 

c/o Preservation Assistance Division(424) 

National Park Service 

P.O. Box 37127 

Washington, D.C. 20013-7127 



Participation — page 14 



Appendix A: 
NPS Intern-Architects Guide to Architectural Licensing 

May 1986 

To assist NPS intern-architects in becoming licensed, the National Park Service, in 
consultation with the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB), has 
adapted the NCARB synopsis of training detailed in the Intern-Architect Development 
Program to relate to work performed by the National Park Service. When finalized, this 
Guide will be part of a Memorandum of Understanding between NCARB and NPS. 

There is some confusion in the use of term "architect" by those in the Federal government 
and the NCARB, its member boards and the American Institute of Architects. "Architect" 
when used by the Federal government is a job title, not a legally professional status, and it 
should not be assumed that persons so designated are licensed by individual states to practice 
the profession of architecture. When used by the U.S. architectural profession at large and 
its regulating bodies, "Registered Architect," "licensed architect," and "architect" have the 
same meaning. The "Historical Architect," at best, is first an architect ("registered 
architect"), with a specialty in historical buildings and should not imply that it is a profession 
unto itself with its own licensing bodies. The National Park Service encourages registration 
and has developed this document to assist staff in reaching that goal. The "Intern- 
Architect," a term used throughout this document, typically is one who holds a degree in 
architecture and is in the process of meeting a jurisdiction's experience requirement for 
registration. 

Appendix A is a major section in its own right but addresses the short term goal of 
architectural licensing. (Note: participating in and enrolling in the Skills Development Plan 
is entirely separate from obtaining the necessary work experience to take the architectural 
examination.) 

The decision to become registered is currently a personal choice. There are, however, 
instances in the Service in which registration is a requirement of the position. The work on 
Appendix A was undertaken to encourage registration as there are benefits to both you and 
the Service. If you are planning to become a supervisor in the future, your being registered 
will help those who work for you attain registration. Even if you do not become a supervisor, 
you will still be able to serve as an advisor for other intern-architects. Registration also 
improves your credibility with other agencies, with private firms, and within the Service. 

If you are interested in becoming registered and are not working for a registered architect 
and need required supervision to meet NCARB requirements, please contact Emogene Bevitt 
or Hugh Miller, AIA. Fortunately many NPS architects are registered and instances such as 
this are believed to be few. On a case-by-case basis we will endeavor to work with you and 
your supervisor to find ways of meeting the requirements. 



The authors are grateful to the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards, 
especially Samuel Balen, FAIA, Richard Van Os Keuls, AIA, and Robert Rosenfeld for their 
advice and assistance in completing this document. Special thanks go also to National Park 
Service staff including Randall Biallas, AIA, Anthony Knapp, and Kay Weeks. 



NPS Intern-Architects Guide To Architectural Licensing 

Introduction 1 

Intern-Architect Development Program Participants 3 

The 14 Training Areas 3 

Documenting Internship Activities k 

Intern-Architect Development Program (IDP) Training Synopsis 

Category A: Design and Construction Documents 5 

1. Programming-Client Contact 5 

2. Site and Environmental Analysis 5 

3. Schematic Design 6 

k. Building Cost Analysis 6 

5. Code Research 6 

6. Design Development 7 

7. Construction Documents 7 

8. Specifications and Materials Research 7 

9. Documents Checking and Coordination 8 

Category B: Construction Administration 8 

10. Bidding and Contract Negotiation 8 

11. Construction Phase — Office 9 

12. Construction Phase ~ Observation 9 

Category C: Office Management 10 

13. Office Procedures 10 

\k. Professional Activities 11 

Category D: Related Special Activities 11 



Introduction 

What will you have to do to become a registered architect, that is, a person legally 
registered by a body which regulates the practice of architecture? This has been defined 
by each state in detail, but generally the requirements say a candidate must: 

-receive a first professional degree in architecture from a program accredited by 

the National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB), 

-work for 3 years in an architect's office gaining a wide range of experiences, 

-submit a record describing this experience for evaluation and acceptance by a 

state registration board, and 

-pass the architectural licensing examination. 

As already noted, each jurisdiction has its own requirements for registration. For 
example, many states do not recognize Federal work experience in architecture as 
qualifying experience toward registration. Some jurisdictions have a formula that will 
allow a percentage of Federal work experience to count; others will consider Federal 
work experience on a case-by-case basis if the applicant presents convincing information. 

There are two ways to approach registration: one is to work directly through a particular 
state registration board, comply with those standards, take the test when eligible, and 
pass it. The other is to initiate an applicant record with the National Council of 
Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB), have the completed record forwarded to the 
board, comply with the jurisdiction's standards, take the test when eligible, and pass it. 

You are free to choose which process you would like to follow in attaining your goal. But 
because NCARB's education and training (experience) standards are recognized by all the 
jurisdictions and have been adopted by many, we decided to work with the NCARB 
standards in preparing this Guide. 

Each registration board has the legal authority to establish requirements necessary for 
admission to examination and for registration. NCARB, as a federation of all 
registration boards of the United States, is charged with setting education, training, and 
examination standards for certification (the vehicle through which reciprocal registration 
may be obtained). The National Council of Architectural Registration Boards interprets, 
details and enforces their standards, maintains applicant records, and acts as the central 
clearinghouse and contact point for all intern-architects, registered architects, and 
registration boards in matters dealing with the registration and professional conduct of 
architects. 

NCARB has literature including standards to assist the intern-architect at each step 
toward registration. NCARB has "Circulars of Information" on education standards, 
training standards and the architectural registration examination. Also available is a 
chart that illustrates the individual state requirements for registration. 

One problem facing intern-architects who start working for the National Park Service 
right after graduation is finding that registration boards are reluctant to accept 
government work as qualifying architectural experience. This Guide seeks to address 
that problem by supplementing the information and guidance provided by NCARB; it 
illustrates the kinds of tasks an NPS intern-architect could perform to obtain qualifying 
architectural experience. The Guide is not meant to be used independent of NCARB or 
the registration boards, rather, it is intended to be used in conjunction with the NCARB 
Circulars of Information and other resource guides. 



Architectural Licensing — page 1 



While the Office of Personnel Management does not generally require that individuals in 
Federal service become registered, the National Park Service (NPS) encourages 
registration. Registration has several benefits: 
—registration fulfills a career goal; 

—registration increases employment options beyond Federal service; 
—registration enhances credibility with peers and within the profession; and, 
—registration enhances the professional credibility of the Service when registered 
NPS architects can interact with private sector architects, contractors or with 
other professionals. 

Working cooperatively, The American Institute of Architects and the NCARB have 
developed the Intern-Architect Development Program (IDP)* . Training requirements are 
based on the premise that interns should be well grounded in the diversified background 
of architectural practice prior to applying for a license. Based on surveys and studies, 
NCARB defined 14 job-related training areas, developed a method for charting progress 
in achieving exposure to these training areas, and identified IDP participants to monitor 
the intern's progress and to provide advice and assistance. 

This Guide has been developed from the document IDP Training Guidelines and has been 
customized to conform with National Park Service practice. It has been customized to 
meet the specific needs of NPS staff. NCARB has expressed concern that individuals in 
Federal service may fail to acquire experience in one or more of these training areas and 
that this oversight may result in a skewed vision of the profession and practice of 
architecture. Thus, every care should be taken to achieve the balance NCARB 
recommends. (One of the primary requirements for participation in IDP is the 
completion of three years in a degree program accredited by the National Architectural 
Accreditation Board. Exceptions to this rule are few and require educational evaluation, 
testing, or additional extensive coursework. For more details please consult NCARB 
Circular of Information No. 3, Education Standard for Certification .) Please note: all 
fees incurred in participating in IDP and the fees needed to apply for licenses or renewal 
are the personal responsibility of the individual architect. The National Park Service is 
not allowed to pay for these expenses. 

NPS intern-architects must be able to show how government work experience is directly 
related to that of an intern-architect in private practice. Work on historic structures 
must show a direct relationship to the comprehensive design process and not merely 
consist of repair and maintenance. 

It is up to the individual to review the material provided by NCARB on the Intern- 
Architect Development Program to fully understand the program's objectives and 
requirements. It is up to the individual to work with their own supervisors and to develop 
their own plans for meeting these requirements based on work they may have performed 
in the private sector or on work performed for the Service. NPS intern-architects are 
encouraged to enroll in IDP by establishing an NCARB/IDP Council record. An IDP 



*Note: The acronym IDP is used by both the National Council of Architectural 
Registration Boards and the National Park Service but describes TWO DIFFERENT 
programs. With reference to NCARB, IDP means Intern-Architect Development Program 
and is described here. The National Park Service IDP means Individual Development Plan 
and is a single page form that is prepared annually to accompany Employee Performance 
Standards. 

Architectural Licensing — page 2 



information package, including information to initiate an NCARB/IDP Council record, is 
available from the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards, Suite 700, 
1735 New York Avenue NW., Washington, D.C. 20006. 



I. Intern-Architect Development Program (IDP) Participants 

The IDP participants consist of the intern-architect, a professional sponsor, and a 
professional advisor. The intern-architect is any individual in the process of satisfying a 
jurisdiction's examination eligibility requirements. The professional sponsor provides the 
daily supervision that is required by NCARB and helps to provide the intern-architect 
with the spectrum of experience and exposure that NCARB outlines. The professional 
advisor is a registered architect outside the intern-architect's immediate office with 
whom the intern meets to review progress and develop long range career goals. For 
further details see IDP Training Guidelines and IDP Sponsor/Advisor Guidelines. 



II. The 14 Training Areas 

To satisfy the IDP training standard, each architect is expected to gain 700 value units in 
the 14 training areas. (A value unit is 8 hours of acceptable experience.) The 14 training 
areas are: 

1. Programming-Client Contact 

2. Site and Environmental Analysis 

3. Schematic Design 

4. Building Cost Analysis 

5. Code Research 

6. Design Development 

7. Construction Documents 

8. Specifications and Materials Research 

9. Documents Checking and Coordination 

10. Bidding and Contract Negotiation 

11. Construction Phase — Office 

12. Construction Phase ~ Observation 

13. Office Procedures 

14. Professional Activities 

For specific value unit requirements see the IDP Training Guidelines . 



Architectural Licensing — page 3 



III. Documenting Internship Activities 

A nationally recognized recordkeeping system has been developed by NCARB to assist 
the intern-architect in documenting and assessing internship activities. Although not 
mandatory for participation in IDP, the NCARB Council record is highly recommended. 
The Council record is a detailed, authenticated record of an intern's education, training 
and character. Upon establishing a Council record the intern will receive a set of 
NCARB/IDP report forms to record all training and supplementary education. 

The Council recordholder's progress is carefully monitored at the NCARB office. When 
forwarded to NCARB, each IDP report form goes into the intern's Council record. Since 
all registration authorities require certified evidence of employment before admitting a 
candidate to the examination, this service speeds and simplifies the application process. 

When the Council record shows that NCARB education and training requirements have 
been fully met, the intern is requested to provide the names and addresses of three 
architects who are knowledgeable about his/her abilities and professional conduct. Upon 
receipt of these references, NCARB evaluates the entire Council record and transmits a 
complete copy to the registration board in the jurisdiction where the application for 
admission to the examination is being made. If the NCARB requirements have been 
fulfilled, the Council record includes NCARB's recommendation that the applicant be 
admitted. The board reviews the transmittal from NCARB and makes the final decision 
on admittance. A fee is charged by NCARB for each transmittal of a Council record. 

After an intern-architect has passed the examination and received registration, the 
Council record can be considered for NCARB certification. Upon request, NCARB will 
update the Council record with examination grades from the appropriate board and 
current employment information. 

NCARB then conducts a final review and, if all conditions for certification are satisfied, 
the certification fee is requested and certification is issued upon receipt. NCARB 
certification is the vehicle through which reciprocal registration may be obtained with 
other boards. See the IDP Training Guidelines for fee schedules and further information 
on NCARB services and requirements. 



In summary, the Guide explains how the architectural registration process generally 
works. It describes tasks that may be evaluated as qualifying experience towards 
architectural registration. You have to want to become registered; you have to plan, in 
cooperation with your supervisor, how you can obtain qualifying work experience under 
the supervision of a registered architect . Registration benefits not only you but the 
Service as well. We encourage your supervisor to look favorably upon creative options 
for obtaining qualifying experience. Options will have to be worked out on a case-by- 
case basis. Regional Historical Architects, the Chief Historical Architect, and the 
Chief, Preservation Assistance Division are available to provide advice and counsel in 
developing creative possibilities. Good luck. 



Architectural Licensing ~ page 4 



IDP Training Synopsis 

Category A: 

Design and Construction Documents 

1. Programming-Client Contact 

Programming is the process of setting forth in 
writing the owner's requirements for a given 
project. Steps in this process include 
establishing goals; considering a budget; 
collecting, organizing and analyzing data; 
isolating and developing concepts; and 
determining needs in general. The AIA 
Owner-Architect Agreements presume that 
the owner will furnish the program and that 
any involvement of the architect in writing 
the program will be an additional service not 
covered in the basic agreement. However, 
many owners are employing the architect to 
assist them in this effort. The project will 
also be affected by the mortgage lender, 
public officials involved in health, welfare and 
safety, future tenants, and increasingly, the 
people who will work in the built 
environment. Their input at the programming 
stage is essential in order to maintain an 
orderly design process. 



Possible Intern-Architect Activities 
10 Value Units Required 
(One Value Unit = 8 hours) 

a. Participate in office conferences with park 
management regarding programming; periodic 
reviews and formal presentations, and assist in 
preparing minutes or report for future 
reference. 

b. Assist with presentations at hearings, and 
at meetings with Service officials, other 
government agencies and the public. 

c. Take part in visits to existing similar 
projects and participate in interviews with the 
owners/managers and consultants of these 
projects. 

d. Assist in preparing the summary and 
evaluation of data and requirements obtained 
from all sources. The summary is the basis for 
the final written program and task directive 
explaining the scope of services. 



e. Research current literature pertaining to 
architectural programming. 



2. Site and Environmental Analysis 

Site analysis includes land planning, urban 
design and environmental evaluation. Land 
planning and urban design are concerned with 
relationships to surrounding areas and involve 
consideration of the physical, economic and 
social impact of proposed land use on the 
environment, ecology, traffic and population 
patterns. Government agencies frequently 
require documentation on the results 
construction will have on its surroundings (i.e. 
environmental impact studies). Decisions 
relating to site analysis must involve the 
selection, organization and evaluation of 
pertinent data that will lead to a resolution of 
the owner's program while conforming to legal 
requirements. 



Possible Intern-Architect Activities 
10 Value Units Required 

a. Assist in analyzing several sites and 
historic buildings to assess the feasibility of 
their use for a proposed function. 

b. Help to analyze the feasibility of using a 
specific site and historic building for the 
project. 

c. Assist in the analysis of the impact of 
specific land and historic building use and 
location for a report and consider Section 106 
compliance requirements. 

d. Assist in the formulation of the most 
appropriate land use strategy to achieve a 
desired environmental impact. 

e. Research site restrictions such as zoning, 
easements, utilities, etc. 

f. Participate in public hearings about land 
use issues and prepare reports for future 
reference. 



Architectural Licensing — page 5 



3. Schematic Design 

From the owner-approved program, the 
architect develops alternative solutions to 
satisfy technical and aesthetic requirements. 
Preferred schemes are presented until owner 
and architect can agree on one. 



Possible Intern-Architect Activities 
15 Value Units Required 

a. Participate in the development and 
preparation of preliminary design concepts to 
determine the spatial relationships that best 
satisfy park management's program and that 
are sensitive to the building's historic 
character. 

b. Participate in the development and 
coordination of program requirements with 
consultants. 

c. Assist in the preparation of presentation 
drawings and models. 

d. Assist in the analysis and selection of 
engineering systems. 

e. Participate in design review and approval 
meetings with park management, user groups, 
etc. 



k. Building Cost Analysis 

An important responsibility of the architect is 
to evaluate the probable project construction 
cost. Accurate estimates are crucial to the 
client. They influence decisions involving 
basic design, selection of building products and 
systems and construction scheduling. Long- 
term maintenance, as well as tax impact of 
material and system selection (value 
engineering), are additional factors which bear 
on development of the project. For their own 
preliminary analysis, most architects use 
computations based on area and/or volume. 
Such methods require a limited amount of 
experience to adjust the unit cost to special 
conditions of the project. Estimates of cost 
provided later in the design process are 
frequently made on the basis of labor and 
material requirements (quantity surveys), a 



method which requires a more specialized 
knowledge of construction costs. 



Possible Intern-Architect Activities 
10 Value Units Required 

a. Calculate the area and volume of a project 
in accordance with AIA Document D101 
"Architectural Area and Volume of Buildings." 

b. Make a simplified quantity take-off of 
selected materials and prepare comparative 
cost analyses. 

c. Assist in the preparation of cost estimates 
of each stage of a project. 

d. Review various references and texts 
utilized in cost estimating. 

e. Assist in the preparation of cost analyses 
for current projects, using a variety of indices 
(cost/ square foot, cost/cubic foot, unit use, 
etc.) 

f. Conduct a survey of current costs per 
square foot of various types of projects, using 
local Dodge Reports, Builder's Exchange 
reports, historical records of the Service, etc. 



5. Code Research 

Building inspectors as well as officials in 
zoning, environmental and other agencies 
relating to the health, welfare and safety of 
the public, oversee the enforcement of 
federal, state and local regulations related to 
building construction. The codes promulgated 
by these various agencies have a direct 
bearing on the total design process and 
thorough knowledge of all requirements is 
essential to the satisfactory completion of any 
project. 

Possible Intern-Architect Activities 
15 Value Units Required 

a. Assist in searching and documenting codes, 
regulations, ordinances, etc., for one or more 
specific projects. 



Architectural Licensing — page 6 



b. Study procedures necessary to obtain relief 
waivers or variances from particular 
requirements as they relate to a project. 

c. Calculate certain variables (i.e. numbers 
and size of exits, stair dimensions, public 
toilet rooms, ramps) in satisfaction of code 
requirements. 

d. Determine a project's allowable land 
coverage as well as maximum areas in 
compliance with zoning and any other related 
ordinances. 



these documents can be equated closely with 
an office's financial success, architects 
constantly search for more efficient ways to 
produce construction documents. No matter 
what the method of preparation, it is 
extremely important that the documents be 
accurate, consistent, complete and 
understandable. This requires thorough quality 
control including constant review and 
crosschecking of all documents. In addition, 
effective coordination of the drawings of 
consultants is essential to avoid conflicts 
among the various trades during construction. 



6. Design Development 

Based on the owner-approved schematic 
design, the architect fixes and details, for the 
owner's further approval, the size and 
character of the entire project, including 
selection of materials and engineering 
systems. 



Possible Intern-Architect Activities 
40 Value Units Required 

a. Participate in the preparation of detailed 
development drawings from schematic design 
documents. 



b. Assist in developing various schedules and 
outline specifications for materials, finishes, 
fixed equipment, fixtures, construction time 
and construction cost. 



Possible Intern-Architect Activities 
155 Value Units Required 

a. Work in the preparation of detail drawings, 
developing technical skills in drafting 
accuracy, completeness and clarity. 

b. Assist in the correlation and coordination 
of all documents produced by the historical 
architect and the consultants. 



c. Develop a knowledge of professional 
responsibilities ana liabilities arising out of 
the issuance of construction documents. 

d. Participate in the mechanics of 
reproducing and assembling the finished 
construction documents. 

e. Assist the job captain (or equivalent) in 
routine administrative/control tasks. 



c. Help to coordinate engineering systems 
proposed for the project. 

d. Participate in design review and approval 
meetings with park management, user 
groups,etc. 



7. Construction Documents 

The working drawings phase of construction 
documents preparation constitutes the major 
activity in an architect's office. These 
drawings describe in graphic form all of the 
essentials of the work to be done: location, 
size, arrangement and details of the project. 
As the successful and timely execution of 



8. Specifications and Materials Research 

Well-grounded knowledge of specification 
writing principles and procedures is essential 
to the preparation of sound, enforceable 
specifications. Unless these skills are properly 
developed, expert knowledge of materials, 
contracts, and construction procedures cannot 
be communicated successfully to the ultimate 
users. A cardinal principle of specification 
writing requires the architect to understand, 
very clearly, the relationship between 
drawings and specifications, and to be able to 
communicate in a logical, orderly sequence, 
the requirements of the construction process. 
Many factors must be considered in the 



Architectural Licensing — page 7 



selection and evaluation of materials or 
products to be used in a project: 
appropriateness, durability, aesthetic quality, 
first cost, maintenance, etc. To avoid future 
problems, it is extremely important that the 
architect recognize the ultimate function of 
each item to be specified. The architect must 
carefully assess new or untried materials as 
well as new or unusual applications of familiar 
items regardless of manufacturer 
representations, to be certain no hidden 
deficiencies exist that might create problems 
for the owner and expose the architect to 
liability. 



Possible Intern-Architect Activities 
15 Value Units Required 

a. Review construction specifications 
organization, purpose and format, and assist in 
writing specifications. Review and analyze 
bidding forms, insurance aspects, bonding 
requirements, liens, supplementary and special 
conditions. 

b. Research and evaluate data for products to 
be specified, including information regarding 
product availability, cost, code acceptability 
and manufacturers' reliability. Attend sales 
presentations in connection with this research. 

c. Research industry standards and guidelines 
for specific classes of products (e.g. masonry 
cleaners, painting products) as they affect 
various manufacturers' items being considered 
for acceptability on a project. Research 
construction techniques and systems and 
understand workmanship standards such as 
poured-in-place concrete, masonry 
construction, etc. 

d. Evaluate the potential for using master 
specifications in a project specification, 
including procedures needed to adapt 
individual sections for this use. 



9. Documents Checking and Coordination 

Close coordination between drawings and 
specifications is required when preparing 
construction documents. The work of each 
consultant must be reviewed regularly and 



checked against the architectural drawings as 
well as the drawings of other consultants to 
eliminate conflicts. Before final release for 
construction purposes, the drawings and 
specifications must be checked and cross- 
checked for accuracy and compatability. 



Possible Intern-Architect Activities 
15 Value Units Required 

a. Assist in cross-checking products and 
materials called for in the specifications for 
consistency with corresponding terminology 
and descriptions in the working drawings. 

b. Check drawings prepared by other 
draf tpersons for accuracy of dimensions, 
notes, abbreviations, and indications. 

c. Assist in developing a schedule of lead time 
required for proper coordination with other 
disciplines. 

d. Check consultants' drawings with 
architectural drawings and other consultants' 
drawings for possible conflicts and 
interference of plumbing lines, ductwork, 
electrical fixtures etc. 

e. Assist in the final project review for 
compliance with applicable codes, regulations, 
etc. 



Category B: Construction Administration 

10. Bidding and Contract Negotiation 

The architect assists in establishing and 
administering bidding procedures, issuing 
addenda, evaluating proposed substitutions, 
reviewing the qualifications of bidders, 
analyzing bids or negotiated proposals and 
making recommendations for the selection of 
the contractor(s). 

The construction contract and related 
documents are the formal instruments which 
bind the major parties in the construction 
phase together. They detail the desired 
product and the services to be provided in its 
construction, as well as the consideration to 
be paid for the product and the services. 



Architectural Licensing — page 8 



Possible Intern-Architect Activities 
10 Value Units Required 

a. Carefully review the bidding/award stages 
of previous projects. Develop an 
understanding of problems encountered and 
how they were resolved. 

b. Prepare sample bids using quantity take- 
offs from the building cost analysis. 

c. Assist in the prequalification of bidders. 

d. Assist in the receipt, analysis and 
evaluation of bids, including any alternates. 

e. Learn what information and submittals are 
required prior to issuance of notice to 
proceed. 

f. Assist in evaluating equal product 
considerations in preparing addenda. 

g. Meet with contractors and material 
suppliers to better understand problems they 
encounter with bid packages and construction 
contract documents. Understand the role of 
the contracting officier during the bidding 
process. 

h. Assist in the preparation and negotiation of 
construction contracts and become familiar 
with the conditions of the contract for 
construction in order to identify the 
government's, contractor's, owner's, bonding 
company's and insurer's roles in the 
administration of the construction phase. 



11. Construction Phase — Office 

During the construction phase there are many 
related tasks which do not directly involve 
field observations: processing contractors' 
Applications for Payment, change orders, shop 
drawings and samples, adjudicating disputes, 
etc. The architect's handling of these matters 
will usually have a direct bearing on the 
smooth functioning of the work in the field. 
For example, prompt processing of the 
contractor's Application for Payment, 
including review of any substantiating data 
that may be required by the contract 
documents, helps the contractor maintain an 



even flow of funds. 

Items such as shop drawings, samples and test 
reports submitted for the architect's review 
must be acted upon promptly to expedite the 
construction process. Changes in the work 
which may affect the time of construction or 
modify the cost are accomplished by change 
orders. Interpretations necessary for the 
proper execution of work must be promptly 
given in writing even when no change order is 
required. 



Possible Intern-Historical Architect Activities 
15 Value Units Required 

a. Assist in processing applications for 
payment. 

b. Assist in checking shop drawings, evaluting 
samples submitted and maintaining records. 

c. Assist in evaluating requests for changes, 
interpretation of documents and preparation 
of Change Orders. 

d. Participate in the resolution of disputes 
and interpretation of conflicts relating to the 
contract documents. 

e. Participate in the assembly of evidence and 
preparation of testimony to be used before an 
arbitration panel or in court. 

f. Research the legal responsibilities of the 
government, contractors and architects by 
attending seminars and using other 
supplementary education resources. 

g. Participate in the preparation of record 
documents at project completion. 



12. Construction Phase 



Observation 



In administering the Construction Contract, 
the architect's function is to determine if the 
contractor's work generally conforms to the 
requirements of the contract documents. To 
evaluate the quality of materials and 
workmanship the architect must be thoroughly 
familiar with all of the provisions of the 
Construction Contract. Periodic reports on 



Architectural Licensing — page 9 



the stage of completion of scheduled activities 
are collected and compared to the overall 
Project Schedule at job site meetings. These 
meetings facilitate communication between 
the contract parties and produce a detailed 
progress record. The architect must 
determine through observation the Date of 
Substantial Completion and receive all data, 
warranties and releases required by the 
contract documents prior to final inspection 
and final payment. In addition to these 
construction-related functions, the architect 
interprets contract documents when 
disagreements occur, judging the dispute 
impartially, even when the owner is involved. 
Dissatisfaction with the architect's decision 
can lead to arbitration or the courts. 



Possible Intern-Architect Activities 
15 Value Units Required 

a. Visit the job site and participate in 
observation of the work in place and materials 
stored, and prepare field reports of such 
routine inspections. 

b. Review and analyze construction time 
schedules. Understand the various network 
methods (e,g, critical path method) potentially 
available to the contractor. 

c. By review of the contract documents and 
through professional development programs, 
develop an awareness of the contractual 
obligations. 

d. Attend periodic job-site construction 
meetings and assist in recording and 
documenting all actions taken and agreed to at 
such meetings. 

e. Participate in the substantial completion 
inspection and assist in the punch list 
verification. 

f. Participate in the final acceptance 
inspection for the government. 



Category C: Office Management 



13. Office Procedures 



Although architecture is a creative profession, 
current techniques of practice require that the 
architect's office operate in almost the same 
manner as a commercial enterprise. Steady 
income must be generated and expenses 
carefully budgeted and monitored so that 
economic stability, essential to a successful 
practice, can be maintained. Accurate 
records must be kept for tax purposes and for 
use in future work. Established office 
requirements and regulations are essential to 
maintaining a smooth operation; office 
practice manuals are a typical tool for 
dissemination of this information. Profitable 
use of manpower requires budgeting of time 
and the development of schedules which are 
adhered to rigidly. The architect's 
relationship to the owner is established by 
contractual agreement. A contract 
establishes the duties and obligations of the 
parties. In order for a contract to be 
enforceable, there must be mutual agreement 
between competent parties, an acceptable 
monetary consideration, and it must be for a 
lawful purpose and accomplishable within an 
established time frame. 

Effective public relations play an essential 
role in the creation of the architect's image. 
This is important in bringing new clients and 
work into the office as well as in attracting 
superior people for the professional staff. The 
architect must participate in marketing 
activities if the practice is to succeed. On the 
other hand, the architect's marketing 
activities (unlike those of merchants, 
manufacturers and others in commerce) are 
subject to certain professional constraints. 
The architect must learn marketing techniques 
which are effective while remaining within 
legitimate rules of professional conduct. 



Possible Intern-Architect Activities 
15 Value Units Required 

a. Review the process of internal accounting 
and cost control systems for project operation. 



Architectural Licensing — page 10 



b. Participate in allocation of time to all 
elements involved in a total project from 
preliminary design through construction. 

c. Review professional service contracts for 
their structure, content, determination of 
responsibility and enforcement procedures. 

d. Assist in the development of programs to 
publicize professional services and expertise 
of National Park Service historic architecture. 

e. Assist in developing brochures, interpretive 
literature and technical publications, exhibits 
of award entries. 



14. Professional Activities 

To strengthen the profession's image, the 
architect must participate in public service 
programs. The architect must also maintain a 
supportive role with others involved in the 
construction industry. The various 
professional societies and other public service 
opportunities offer viable means of serving the 
profession and the community. Meaningful 
involvement requires participation beyond 
attendance at regular meetings. 



Possible Intern-Historical Architect Activities 
10 Value Units Required 

a. Participate in the work of professional 
societies through committee activity. 

b. Provide service to the public by 
contribution of expertise toward environment, 
planning, historic preservation, zoning, housing 
and codes. 



c. Participate in civic programs and 
organizations. 



Category D: Related Special Activities 

Energy Conservation 
Computer Applications 
Construction Management 
Planning 
Interior Design 
Landscape Architecture 
Environmental Engineering 
Structural Engineering 
Applied Research 
Teaching 

Historic Preservation 
Professional Delineation 
Handicapped Accessibility 
Others 



235 Value Units May be Acquired in one 
Category or spread throughout the 
Categories 

(No minimum Value Units required) 



Architectural Licensing— page 11 



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